TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2003)
TIME LIMIT: 215 MIN
PART Ⅰ LISTENINGCOMPREHENSION [40 MIN]
In SectionsA, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answerthe questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloredanswer sheet.
SECTION A TALK
Questions 1to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will begiven 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now listen tothe talk.
1. Which of the following statements aboutoffices is NOT true according to the talk?
A. Officesthroughout the world are basically alike.
B. There areprimarily two kinds of office layout.
C. Officesurroundings used to depend on company size.
D. Officeatmosphere influences workers’ performance.
2. We can infer from the talk that harmonious work relations mayhave a direct impact on your _____.
3. Supposing you were working in a small firm, which of thefollowing would you do when you had some grievances?
A. Request aformal special meeting with the boss.
B. Draft aformal agenda for a special meeting.
C. Contact aconsultative committee first.
D. Ask to seethe boss for a talk immediately.
4. According to the talk, the union playsthe following roles EXCEPT _____.
5. Which topic is NOT covered in the talk?
A. Role of theunion
D. Office layout
1. B 细节题。录音中提到的“the physical surroundings of most modern companies, especiallyoffices are becoming more and more similar（大多数现代公司的布局，尤其是办公室的布局变得越来越相似了。）”，由此可知A项叙述是正确的。由“the feature...may be dependent on the size of the company”和“modern companies pay specialattention to the physical surrounding, in order to create...higher workingefficiency”可以排除C、D项。录音中没有提到“办公室的布局主要有两种”这一观点，所以答案为B项。
2. A 细节题。录音中谈到“particularly as the management’s assessment of how are youperforming can be crucial to your future career”（管理层对你工作表现的评估对你未来的事业很重要），由此可见和谐的工作关系会对你promotion（提升、晋级）产生直接的影响，故选A项。
3. D 细节题。录音中提到“In small businesses, ...Anything that needs to be sorted out will bedone face to face as soon as the problem arises”，由此可知，在小公司里有问题可以尽快与老板直接面谈。故答案为D项。
4. B 细节题。录音中讲到“When this is not possible, the sides can go to arbitration and bringin a third party from outside to say what they think should happen.”（当工会与公司自身不能调节问题时，就会请第三方进行仲裁），所以工会不具备仲裁的职能，答案为B项。
5. C 推理题。由录音内容可知，其内容涉及到了work relations（工作关系）、role of the union（工会角色）和office layout（办公室设置），而并没有涉及到company structure（公司结构）。
When we talkabout a modern company, we usually have managers, employees, products, researchand development or marketing in mind. However, in reality, a company is notjust made up of these elements. There are other things that make a company whatit is. This morning, we are going to look at some other aspects of a company.Let’s first take a look at the offices. The physical surroundingsof most modern companies, especially offices are becoming more and moresimilar. Although there are some differences from country to country, oneoffice looks much like another. Office furniture and equipment tends to besimilar, desks, chairs, filing cabinets, computers, etc. “What is importantabout offices?” you may ask, “What the atmosphere of the work place can ofteninfluence the effectiveness of a company’s employees?” Modern offices are morespacious and better laid, heated, ventilated and air-conditioned than in thepast. But of course, this is the feature that varies from firm tofirm, and may be dependent on the size of the company and its cooperatephilosophy. In some companies, the employees work in large, open-plan officeswithout walls between the departments; in others, the staff members work moreprivately in individual offices. No matter what the office’s law is like, moderncompanies pay special attention to the physical surroundings in order to createan atmosphere conducive to higher working efficiency. Another related pointwhen talking about offices is the work relations with other people at the placeof work. They include relationships with fellow employees, workers orcolleagues. A great part of work or job satisfaction, some people say the majorportion, comes from getting on with others at work. Work relations were alsoincluded those between management and employees. These relations are not alwaysstraightforward, particularly as the management’s assessment ofhow your performing can be crucial to your future career.
Now I’d like tosay a bit more about the relations between management and employees. There willalso be matters about which employees will want to talk to the management. Insmall businesses, the boss will probably work alongside his or her workers.Anything that needs to be sorted out will be done face to face as soon as theproblem arises. There will be no formal meetings for procedures. But the largerthe business, the less direct contact there will be between employees andmanagement. Special meetings have to be held and procedures set up to say when,where, how and what circumstances the employees can talk to the management.Some companies have specially organized consultative committees for thispurpose. In many countries of the world today, particularly in large firms,employees join a trade union and ask the union to represent them to themanagement. Through the union all categories of employees can pass on thecomplaints they have and try to get things changed. The process, through whichunions negotiate with management on behalf of their members is called,collective bargaining. Instead of each employee trying to bargain alone withthe company, the employees join together and collectively put forward theirviews. Occasionally a firm will refuse to recognize the right of a union tonegotiate for its members, and its dispute over union recognition will arise.Whether there is an agreement, bargaining or negotiation will take place. Acompromise agreement may be reached. When this is not possible, thesides can go to arbitration and bring in a third party from outside to say whatthey think should happen.
However,sometimes one of the sides decides to take industrial action. The managementcan lock out the employees and prevent them from coming to work. This used tobe quite common, but it’s rarely used today. The main courses of action open toa trade union are strike, a ban on working overtime, “working to rule”, that iswhen employees work according to the company rule book, “go slows”, which meansthat employees may spend more time doing the same job, and “picketing”, which meansthe employees stand outside the entrance to the business location, hoardingoutside to show that they are in conflict with the management. Every countryhas its own tradition of industrial relations, so it’s difficult to generalize.In some businesses, unions are not welcomed by the management, but it others,the unions play an important role both in the everyday working relations ofindividual companies, and also in the social and political life of the country.
SECTION B INTERVIEW
Questions 6 to10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 secondsto answer each of the following five questions.
Now listen tothe interview.
6. Which of the following statements isINCORRECT about David’s personal background?
A. He hadexcellent academic records at school and university.
B. He was onceon a PHD programme at Yale University.
C. He receivedprofessional training in acting.
D. He came froma single-parent family.
7. David is inclined to believe in _____.
C. the TVcharacter.
8. David thinks he is fit for the TV rolebecause of his _____.
9. From the interview, we know that atpresent David feels _____.
A. a sense offrustration.
B. haunted bythe unknown things
C. confident butmoody
D. successfulyet unsatisfied.
10. How does David feel about the divorceof his parents?
A. He feels asense of anger.
B. He has asense of sadness.
C. It helpedhim grow up.
D. It left noeffect on him.
6. C 细节题。在访谈中主持人提到“...took a few acting classes”，可见David只是上了几次表演课，并没有接受过专业的表演培训，所以C项的说法是错误的。
7. A 细节题。在对话中，David对“Soyou could believe in aliens?”的回答是“oh, yeah.”可见，David倾向于相信aliens。故答案为A项。
8. B 推理题。由对话中可知，David在《X档案》中所扮演的角色的性格是“dark and moody”，而他本人在现实生活中也是这样的。由此可见，David认为他本人适合电视角色是由于他的性格（personality）的原因。
9. D 细节题。在访谈中David对主持人“Where are you now? Are you haunted and driven, failed or successful,which?”的回答是“Yeah,both.”由此可知，David对现状既有成功之感，同时也有不满意之处。故D项为正确答案。
10. C 细节题。David就父母离婚一事说“...wherever you are hurt, that’s where you’ll become stronger”（你受到伤害的地方，也是你变得坚强的地方）。由此可见，David认为父母的离异促进了他的成长，答案为C项。
If you are goingto create a TV show that plays week after week, it needs an actor who can playa believer, you know, a person who tends to believe everything. Tonight in ourshow we have David Duchovney, who has starred in the popular TV series, “The X-Files”.Thanks to his brilliant performance in the TV series, David has become one ofbest-known figures in the country.
W: Good evening, David, I’m so glad to have you here.
M: It’s my pleasure. Thank you for inviting me on the show.
W: David, have you often been on the radio shows?
M: Oh, yes, quite often. To be frank, I love to be on the show.
M: You know, I want toknow what people think about the TV series and about me, my acting, etc.
W: OK, David, let’s firsttalk about the character you played in ‘The X-Files’. The character, whose nameis Mulder is supposed to be a believer. He deals with those unbelievable, wildand often disastrous events. He must be, I mean, Mulder, someone who reallybelieves in the things he meets in order to keep on probing into thosemysteries.
M: That’s true. Rememberthose words said by Mulder: What is so hard to believe? Whose intensity makeseven a most skeptical viewer believe the paranormal and our rigorous governmentconspiracies, without every reason to believe that life in the persistentsurvey is driving us out of our territorial sphere, etc., etc.?
W: I believe, I guess,David, your contribution to the hot series is quite apparent. Now let’s talkabout your personal experience. From what I have read, I know that startingfrom your childhood, you were always a smart boy, went to the best privateschool, and were accepted at most of the Ivy League colleges. Not bad for a lowmiddle class kid from a broken family on New York’s Lower Eastside. It’s evenmore surprising when you, who were on your way to a doctorate at Yale to takea few acting classes and got beaten by the book.
M: You bet. My mother wasreally surprised when I decided to give up all that in order to become anactor.
W: Sure. But talkingabout Mulder, the believer in ‘The X. Files’, what about you, David? Do you believeat all in real life, the aliens, people from outer space, you know, UFOs,government conspiracies, all the things that the TV series deal with?
M: Well, governmentconspiracies, I think, are a little far fetched. Because I mean, it’s very hardfor me to keep a secret with a friend of mine. And you can tell me that theentire government is going to come together and hide the aliens from us? I findthat hard to believe. In terms of aliens, I think that they are real. They mustbe.
W: So you could believe in aliens?
M: Oh, yeah.
W: The character you played in ‘The X-Files’, Fox Mulder, is so darkand moody. Are you dark and moody in life?
M: I think so. I thinkwhat they wanted was somebody who could be this hearted, driven person, but notbehave that way and therefore be hearted and driven but also appear to benormal and not crazy at the same time. And I think that I could, I can, I canafford that.
W: What haunts you now?What drives you now?
M: What drives me isfailure and success and all those things, so ...
W: Where are you now? Are you haunted and driven, failed or successful,which?
M: Yeah, both.
W: All of the above?
M: I always feel like afailure.
W: Do you mean now youfeel like a failure?
M: Yeah, I mean,sometimes you know, like I come back to New York, so its like, everything isdifferent. So I lie on bed and think, two years ago, three years ago, verydifferent. Maybe I’m doing well, but then I think, you know thereare just so many other things that I want to do and ...
W: Your father and motherdivorced when you were eleven. Does that have effect on your life today thatyou recognize?
M: Well, yeah, I thinkthat the only way to think of it is that, you know, people are saying ‘yourwound is your goal’, you know,  ‘wherever you’re hurt, that’swhere you’ll become stronger.’ So, that’s what, that’s what it’s really about...
W: OK. It’s time for short break. We’ll be back in a minute. DavidDuchovney in ‘The X·Files’, don’t go away.
SECTION C NEWSBROADCAST
Question 11is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given15seconds to answer the question.
Now listen tothe news.
11. What is the main idea of the news item?
A. US concernover th6 forthcoming peace talks.
B. Peaceefforts by the Palestinian Authority.
C.Recommendations by the Mitchell Commission.
D. Bomb attacksaimed at Israeli civilians.
【解析】理解归纳题。根据新闻的第二句话“Theadministration officials are openly worried the violence..., could underminewhat they see as a positive opening...”以及新闻中多次提到相关人员担心巴以和平进程，所以本则新闻的主题应该是A项。
The Bushadministration is warning that continuing mid-east violence threatens tooverwhelm US efforts to revise Israeli-Palestinian Peace talks, using therecommendations of the Mitchell commission to bring the two sides together. Theadministration officials are openly worried the violence and particularly thecar bomb attack injured Israeli civilians could undermine what they see as apositive opening towards renewed peace talks presented by the Mitchell report.The US appeal came in the week of the bomb blast Wednesday in Israeli coastaltown of Netanya that injured several Israelis. Responsibility for the bombingwas claimed by the Palestinian group, Islamic Jihad. At the state department,spokesman, Phillip Reeker said there can be no justification for terrorism andtargeting its civilians, and he urged the Palestinian authority to do all theycan to put an end to such incidents which is said to threaten to overtake thelatest peace efforts.
Question 12is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given15 seconds to answer the question.
Now listen tothe news.
12. Some voters will waste their ballotsbecause _____.
A. they likeneither candidate.
B. they are allill-informed.
C. thecandidates do not differ much
D. they do notwant to vote twice.
【解析】细节题。从新闻中提到的“...plan to spoil orleave their ballots blank to show their dissatisfaction with both candidates”可看出有些选民对两个候选人都不满意，所以对他们来说，只是在浪费他们的选票。
Voters in Peruhead to the post today to cast their ballots in a run off presidential electionthat many hope will mark the end of the nation’s political crisis. Opinionpolls last week show the modern candidate Arhumdred Toledo with a narrow leadover a left-leaning former President Ellen Gaceya. Both candidates havecampaigned on similar populous platforms. Meanwhile pre-election Serviceindicates that up to 25% of voters in Peru plan to spoil orleave their ballots blank to show their dissatisfaction with both candidates.
Questions 13to 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will begiven15 seconds to answer each of the questions.
Now listen tothe news.
13. According to the UN Human Development Report, which is the bestplace for women in the world?
B. The US.
14. _____ is in the 12th place in overallranking.
15. According to the UN report, the leastdeveloped country is _____.
C. Sierra Leon.
D. Central AfricanRepublic.
13. D 细节题。新闻的第二句讲到“But if you are a woman, you arebetter off in Scandinavia since the UN Human Development (2000) releasedyesterday”由此可见，根据联合国人类发展报告，妇女在Scandinavia的地位最高。答案为D项。
14. B 细节题。新闻中提到“Finland is the eleventh place followed by France...”（芬兰位居第十一位，法国紧随其后），所以位居第十二位的是法国。
15. C 细节退。新闻最后一句提到“...from the bottom up war-deviated, Sierra Leone”，由此可知，Sierra Leon是最不发达的。
Canada for theseventh consecutive year ranks the best place to live in the world. Butif you are a woman, you are better off in Scandinavia, says the UN HumanDevelopment Report (2000) released yesterday. Norway is in second place youknow for ranking followed by the United States, Australia, Iceland, Sweden,Belgium, the Netherlands Japan and Britain. Finland is in eleventhplace followed by France, Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Austria, Luxembourg,Ireland, Italy and New Zealand. At the other end of the scale,the ten least developed countries that provide the fewest service to theirpeople, from the bottom up, a war-devastated Sierra Leone, Niger, Burkina Faso,Ethiopia, Brandi, Guinean Bissau, Mozambique, Chad, Central African Republicand Mali.
SECTION D NOTE-TAKINGAND GAP-FILLING
In thissection you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY.While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not bemarked, but you will need them to complete a 15-minute gap-filling task onANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini-lecture. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow has developed a famoustheory of human needs, which can be arranged in order of importance.
Philological needs: the most (1) _____ ones for survival. They include such needs asfood, water, etc. And there is usually one way to satisfy these needs.
(2) _____ needs: needsfor:
b) (3) _____ security.
The former meansno illness or injury, while the latter is concerned with freedom from (4) _____,misfortunes, etc. These needs can be met through a variety of means, e. g. jobsecurity, (5) _____ plans, and safe working conditions.
Social needs: human requirements for:
a) love andaffection;
b) a sense ofbelonging.
There are twoways to satisfy these needs:
a) formation ofrelationships at workplace;
b).formation ofrelationships outside workplace.
a) self-esteem,i. e. one’s sense of achievement;
b) esteem ofothers, i.e. others’ respect as a result of one’s (6) _____. These needs can befulfilled by achievement, promotion, honours, etc.
Self-realization needs: need to realize one’s potential. Ways to realize these needs are individually(7) _____.
Features of thehierarchy of needs:
a) Social,esteem and self-realization needs are exclusively (8) _____ need.
b) Needs aresatisfied in a fixed order from the bottom up.
c) (9) _____ forneeds comes from the lowest un-met level,
d) Differentlevels of needs may (10) _____ when they come into play.
(1) basic/ fundamental
(细节题。讲座主要论述的是马斯洛的需求层级理论，分别是生理需求（physiologicalneeds），安全需求（safetyneeds），社交需求（socialneeds），尊重需求（esteemneeds），自我实现需求（self-realizationneeds）。本题针对生理需求设题。在谈到生理需求时，录音中说“In this hierarchy of needs, at the most basic level are physiologicalneeds”，由此可知，此处应填写basic，其他同义词也可。)
(细节题。本题针对第二个层次的需求设题。当录音中说到“Thenwhat is the next level of needs?”我们就应集中注意力听下文，“At the next level are safety needs...”由此可知，此处应填写Safety。)
(推断题。作者分别对情感安全和生理安全做了具体说明，前者是“Wehave worries—what if we lose my job, what if I were struck down by a severedisease.”由此可推断情感需求关注人们远离焦虑、不幸等。故此处可填入worries，其他表达相同意义的词语也可。)
(细节题。在谈到解决安全需求的方法时，录音中说到“...safetyneeds may be satisfied through job security, health insurance, pension plan andsafe working conditions.”故此处应填写pension。)
(细节题。在谈到尊重需求时，录音中说“The esteem of othersis the respect and recognition we gain from other people, by or through ourwork or our activities in other social group”故此处应填写work或activities。)
(细节题。在谈到自我实现需求时，录音中说“The means ofsatisfying them tend to vary greatly with the individual.”根据原文中的vary一词可填入其对应的形容词variable。)
(细节题。演讲者最后解释了人们产生这几个需求的模式“Ingeneral, they are motivated by the needs at the lowest level that remainunsatisfied”本题句子是对该句的同义转述，故此处需填入名词motivation。)
(推理题。根据录音中提到的“needs at one leveldo not have to be completely satisfied before needs at the next higher levelcome into play”，由此可知不同层次的需求是可以同时存在的，此处可填写coexist。)
Good morning,everybody. Today’s lecture is about Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Thisseems like a physiological topic. Actually it is something psychological.Abraham Maslow is a psychologist, and he is especially known for his theory ofhuman needs.
OK, first ofall, what is the need? Here, we can simply define it as a personal requirement.Maslow believes that humans are wanting beings, who seek to fulfill a varietyof needs. According to his theory, these needs can be arranged in an orderaccording to their importance. It is this order that has become known as Maslow’shierarchy of needs. In this hierarchy of needs, at the most basic level, are physiological needsFundamentally, humans are just one species of animal. We need to keep ourselvesalive. Physiological needs are what we require for survival. These needsinclude food and water, shelter and sleep. At this level for us humans, Maslowalso includes the need for clothing. How are these needs usually satisfied? Itis mainly through adequate wages.
Then what is thenext level of needs? At the next level are safety needs, the things we requirefor physical and emotional security.Physical security is easy to understand. Everybody needs to keep his body safefrom injury, illness, etc. Then what is emotional security? Well, that may bethe point in this hierarchy of needs, where humans begin to differ from otheranimals. We are thinking animals. We have worries—what we fear may be losing a job, orbeing struck down by a severe disease. Besides physical Security, we need tothink we are safe from misfortunes both now and in a foreseeable future. Howcan these needs be met then? According to Maslow, safety needsmay be satisfied through job security, health insurance, pension plans and safe working conditions.
After this stagecome the levels of needs that are particular to human beings. The immediatefollowing level are the social needs. Under this category, Maslow puts ourrequirements for love and affection and the sense of belonging. We need to beloved, we need to belong to a group not just the family in which we can sharewith others in common interest. In Maslow’s view, this need can be satisfiedthrough the work environment and some informal organizations. Certainly, wealso need social relationships beyond the work place, for example, with familyand friends. Next, the level of esteem needs. What are esteem needs then? Theyinclude both the needs of self-esteem and the need of esteem of others.Self-esteem is a sense of our own achievements and worth. We need to believethat we are successful; we are no worse if no better than others. Theesteem of people is the respect and recognition we gain from other people, byor through our work or our activities inother social groups. The ways to satisfy esteem needs include personalachievements, promotion to more responsible jobs, various honors and awards andother forms of recognition.
What follows isthe top level of this hierarchy of needs. These are the self-realization needs.In other words, they are the needs to grow and develop as people, the needs tobecome all that we are capable of being. These are the most difficult needs tosatisfy. Whether one can achieve this level or not, perhaps determines whetherone can be a great man or just an ordinary man. Of course, it depends ondifferent people. The means of satisfying them tend to vary greatly with the individual. For somepeople, learning a new skill, starting a new career after retirement couldquite well satisfy their self-realization needs. While for other people, itcould be becoming the best in certain areas. It could be becoming the presidentof IBM, anyway, being great or ordinary is what others think, whileself-realization is largely individual. Maslow suggested that people work tosatisfy their physiological needs first, then their safety needs and so on upthe needs ladder. In general, they are motivated by the needs at the lowest level that remainunsatisfied. However, needs at one level do not have to becompletely satisfied before needs at the next higher level come into play. Ifthe majority of a person’s physiological and safety needs are satisfied, thatperson will be motivated primarily by social needs. But any physiological andsafety needs that remain Unsatisfied will keep playing an important role.
OK, that’s thegeneral picture of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Just to sum up, I brieflyintroduce to you Maslow’s theory. Maslow thinks there are five kinds of humanneeds with each one being more important than the preceding one. I hope thatyou find his ideas interesting and in our next lecture, we will mainly discussthe practical implications of his theory.
PART Ⅱ PROOFREADINGAND ERROR CORRECTION [15 MIN]
The passagecontains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. Ineach case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage andcorrect it in the following way:
For a wrongword, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank providedat the end of the line.
For a missingword, mark the position of the missing word with a “∧” sign and write theword you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For an unnecessaryword, cross the unnecessary word with a slash “/” and put the word in the blankprovided at the end of the line.
Proofread thegiven passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.
PART Ⅲ READINGCOMPREHENSION [40 MIN]
SECTION A READINGCOMPREHENSION [30 MIN]
In thissection there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteenmultiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on yourColoured Answer Sheet.
Hostility toGypsies has existed almost from the time they first appeared in Europe in the14th century. The origins of the Gypsies, with little written history, wereshrouded in mystery. What is known now from clues in the various dialects oftheir language, Romany, is that they came from northern India to the MiddleEast a thousand years ago, working as minstrels and mercenaries, metal-smithsand servants. Europeans misnamed them Egyptians, soon shortened to Gypsies. Aclan system, based mostly on their traditional crafts and geography, has madethem a deeply fragmented and fractious people, only really unifying in the faceof enmity from non-Gypsies, whom they call gadje. Today many Gypsy activistsprefer to be called Roma, which comes from the Romany word for “man”. But on mytravels among them most still referred to themselves as Gypsies.
In Europe theirpersecution by the gadje began quickly, with the church seeing heresy in theirfortune-telling and the state seeing anti-social behavior in their nomadism. Atvarious times they have been forbidden to wear their distinctive bright clothes,to speak their own language, to travel, to marry one another, or to ply theirtraditional crafts. In some countries they were reduced to slavery it wasn’tuntil the mid-1800s that Gypsy slaves were freed in Romania. In more recenttimes the Gypsies were caught up in Nazi ethnic hysteria, and perhaps half amillion perished in the Holocaust. Their horses have been shot and the wheelsremoved from their wagons, their names have been changed, their women have beensterilized, and their children have been forcibly given for adoption tonon-Gypsy families.
But the Gypsieshave confounded predictions of their disappearance as a distinct ethnic groupand their numbers have burgeoned. Today there are an estimated 8 to 12 millionGypsies scattered across Europe, making them the continent’s largest minority.The exact number is hard to pin down. Gypsies have regularly been undercounted,both by regimes anxious to downplay their profile and by Gypsies themselves,seeking to avoid bureaucracies. Attempting to remedy past inequities, activistgroups may overcount. Hundreds of thousands more have emigrated to the Americasand elsewhere. With very few exceptions Gypsies have expressed no great desirefor a country to call their own -unlike the Jews, to whom the Gypsy experienceis often compared. “Romanestan” said Ronald Lee, the Canadian Gypsy writer, “iswhere my two feet stand.”
16. Gypsies are united only when they_____.
A. are engagedin traditional crafts.
B. callthemselves Roma.
C. live under aclan system.
D. faceexternal threats.
17. In history hostility to Gypsies in Europe resulted in theirpersecution by all the following EXCEPT _____.
B. the state.
C. the church.
D. the Nazis.
18. According to the passage, the main difference between theGypsies and the Jews lies in their concepts of _____.
16. D 细节题。第一段第五句中讲到“...only really unifying in the face of enmity from non-Gypsies”（只有面对非吉卜赛人的威胁时才联合起来），故答案为选项D。
17. A 细节题。第二段第一句和第四句分别讲到“In Europe...with the church...and the state...”（在欧洲，gadje人对他们的迫害迅速开始，教堂认为他们的算命是异教行为，政府认为他们的游牧生活是反社会行为）和“In more recent times the Gypsies were caught up in Nazi...in theholocaust.”（在近期的历史中，吉卜赛人被卷入了纳粹党的歇斯底里的种族迫害中，大约有50万人死于这次大屠杀）。由此可知B、C、D项都对吉卜赛人造成了迫害。
18. C 推断题。第三段最后讲到“With very few exceptions Gypsies have expressed no great desire fora country to call their own—unlike the Jews, ...”（绝大部分吉卜赛人对建立一个自己民族的国家没有多大欲望，不像犹太人那样），可见他们对自己的身份或归属（identity）所持的观点不相同，所以答案为C项。
①shroud v. 隐瞒，保密
②fractious adj. 易怒的；倔强的，难以对待的
④burgeon v. 发芽，萌芽，成长
I was just a boywhen my father brought me to Harlem for the first time, almost 50 years ago. Westayed at the Hotel Theresa, a grand brick structure at 125th Street and SeventhAvenue. Once, in the hotel restaurant, my father pointed out Joe Louis. He evengot Mr. Brown, the hotel manager, to introduce me to him, a bit paunchy butstill the champ as far as I was concerned.
Much has changedsince then. Business and real estate are booming. Some say a new renaissance isunder way. Others decry what they see as outside forces running roughshod overthe old Harlem.
New York meantHarlem to me, and as a young man I visited it whenever I could. But many of myold haunts are gone. The Theresa shut down in 1966. National chains that onceignored Harlem now anticipate yuppie money and want pieces of this primeManhattan real estate. So here I am on a hot August afternoon, sitting in aStarbucks that two years ago opened a block away from the Theresa, snatching atmemories between sips of high-priced coffee. I am about to open up a piece ofthe old Harlem—the New York Amsterdam News—when a tourist asking directions toSylvia’s, a prominent Harlem restaurant, penetrates my daydreaming. He’s carryinga book: Touring Historic Harlem.
History. I missMr. Michaux’s bookstore, his House of Common Sense, which was across from theTheresa. He had a big billboard out front with brown and black faces painted onit that said in large letters: “World History Book Outlet on 2,000,000,000Africans and Nonwhite Peoples.” An ugly state office building has swallowedthat space.
I miss speakerlike Carlos Cooks, who was always on the southwest comer of 125th and Seventh,urging listeners to support Africa. Harlem’s powerful political electricityseems unplugged-although the sweets are still energized, especially by WestAfrican immigrants.
Hardworkingsouthern newcomers formed the bulk of the community back in the 1920s and 30s,when Harlem renaissance artists, writers, and intellectuals gave it a glitterand renown that made it the capital of black America. From Harlem, W. E. B.DuBois, Langston Hughes, Paul Robeson, Zora Neal Hurston, and others helpedpower America’s cultural influence around the world.
By the 1970s and80s drugs and crime had ravaged parts of the community. And the life expectancyfor men in Harlem was less than that of men in Bangladesh. Harlem had become asymbol of the dangers of inner-city life.
Now, you want toshout “Lookin’ good!” at this place that has been neglected for so long. Crowdspush into Harlem USA, a new shopping centre on 125th, where a Disney storeshares space with HMV Records, the New York Sports Club, and a nine-screenMagic Johnson theatre complex. Nearby, a Rite Aid drugstore also opened. Maybepart of the reason Harlem seems to be undergoing a rebirth is that it isfinally getting what most people take for granted.
Harlem is alsopart of an “empowerment zone”—a federal designation aimed at fostering economicgrowth that will bring over half a billion in federal, state, and localdollars. Just the shells of once elegant old brownstones now can cost severalhundred thousand dollars. Rents are skyrocketing. An improved economy, tougherlaw enforcement, and community efforts against drugs have contributed to a 60percent drop in crime since 1993.
19. At the beginning the author seems toindicate that Harlem _____.
A. has remainedunchanged all these years.
B. hasundergone drastic changes.
C. has becomethe capital of Black America.
D. has remaineda symbol of dangers of inner-city life.
20. When the author recalls Harlem in theold days, he has a feeling of _____.
21. Harlem was called the capital of Black America in the 1920s and ’30smainly because of its _____.
A. art andculture.
22. From the passage we can infer that,generally speaking, the author______.
A. has strongreservations about the changes.
B. has slightreservations about the changes,
C. welcomes thechanges in Harlem.
D. iscompletely opposed to the changes.
19. B 推理题。第一段讲述了作者还是个小男孩时去Harlem的情景。第二段第一句就提出“Much has changed since then.”由此可见，作者在开头就暗示了Harlem经历了剧烈的变化。故答案为B项。
20. D 推理题。根据第四段的第一句“I miss Mr. Michaux’s bookstore...”和第五段第一句“I miss speaker like Carlos Cooks...”可以推断出作者对过去有着一种怀旧之情，故答案为D项。
21. A 细节理解题。第六段讲到“in the l920s and 30s...capital of black America.”（在20世纪20、30年代Harlem新兴的艺术家、作家和知识分子给Harlem带来了光明和名望，使得其成为美国黑人之都）。由此可知，正是由于艺术和文化（art and culture）使Harlem成为美国黑人之都。所以答案应为A项。
22. C 推理题。第八段讲到在Harlem会有人大声叫好，在作者看来Harlem正在经历一次重生。文章最后一句还提到“An improved economy, tougher law enforcement, ...a 60 percent dropin crime since 1993”（改善的经济，更严厉的法律以及自1993年以来犯罪率下降了60%）。这些都说明了作者对Harlem的变化是欢迎的。
①Harlem n. （纽约）黑人住宅区
②paunchy adj. 大肚子的；大腹便便的
③decry v. 谴责，诋毁
④ravage vt. 毁坏，破坏
The seniorpartner, Oliver Lambert, studied the resume for the hundredth time and againfound nothing he disliked about Mitchell Y. McDeere, at least not on paper. Hehad the brains, the ambition, the good looks. And he was hungry; with hisbackground, he had to be. He was married, and that was mandatory. The firm hadnever hired an unmarried lawyer, and it frowned heavily on divorce, as well aswomanizing and drinking. Drug testing was in the contract. He had a degree inaccounting, passed the CPA exam the first time he took it and wanted to be atax lawyer, which of course was a requirement with a tax firm. He was white,and the firm had never hired a black. They managed this by being secretive and cubbishand never soliciting job applications. Other firms solicited, and hired blacks.This firm recruited, and remained lily white. Plus, the firm was in Memphis,and the top blacks wanted New York or Washington or Chicago. McDeere was amale, and there were no women in the firm. That mistake had been made in themid-seventies when they recruited the number one grad from Harvard, whohappened to be a she and a wizard at taxation. She lasted four turbulent yearsand was killed in a car wreck.
He looked good,on paper. He was their top choice. In fact, for this year there were no otherprospects. The list was very short. It was McDeere, or no one.
The managingpartner, Royce McKnight, studied a dossier labeled “Mitchell Y.McDeere-Harvard.” An inch thick with small print and a few photographs; it hadbeen prepared by some ex-CIA agents in a private intelligence outfit inBethesda. They were clients of the firm and each year did the investigating forno fee. It was easy work, they said, checking out unsuspecting law students.They learned, for instance, that he preferred to leave the Northeast, that hewas holding three job offers, two in New York and one in Chicago, and that thehighest offer was $76,000 and the lowest was $68,000. He was in demand. He hadbeen given the opportunity to cheat on a securities exam during his secondyear. He declined, and made the highest grade in the class. Two months ago hehad been offered cocaine at a law school party. He said no and left wheneveryone began snorting. He drank an occasional beer, but drinking wasexpensive and he had no money. He owed close to $23,000 in student loans. He was hungry.
Royce McKnightflipped through the dossier and smiled. McDeere was their man.
Lamar Quin wasthirty-two and not yet a partner. He had been brought along to look young andact young and project a youthful image for Bendini, Lambert & Locke, whichin fact was a young firm, since most of the partners retired in their lateforties or early fifties with money to bum. He would make partner in this firm.With a six-figure income guaranteed for the rest of his life, Lamar could enjoythe twelve-hundred-dollar tailored suits that hung so comfortably from histall, athletic frame. He strolled nonchalantly across the thousand-dollar-a-daysuite and poured another cup of decaf. He checked his watch. He glanced at thetwo partners sitting at the small conference table near the windows.
Precisely attwo-thirty someone knocked on the door. Lamar looked at the partners, who slidthe resume and dossier into an open briefcase. All three reached for theirjackets. Lamar buttoned his top button and opened the door.
23. Which of the following is NOT the firm’srecruitment requirement?
24. The details of the privateinvestigation show that the firm _____.
A. wasinterested in his family background.
B. intended tocheck out his other job offers.
C. wanted toknow something about his preference.
D. was interestedin any personal detail of the man.
25. According to the passage, the main reason Lama Quin was there atthe interview was that _____.
A. his imagecould help impress McDereer.
B. he wouldsoon become a partner himself.
C. he was goodat interviewing applicants.
D. hisbackground was similar to MeDereer’s.
26. We get the impression from the passagethat in job recruitment the firm was NOT _____.
文章主要围绕Bendini, Lamber &Locke公司的一次招聘展开内容，详细描述了在招聘中他们对Mitchell Y.McDeere的各方面考察情况，从而从侧面展示了该公司的招聘要求。
23. B 细节题。第一段讲到McDeere已婚，而这是必须的（mandatory），由此排除A项。接着讲到“Hehad a degree in accounting...was a requirement with a tax firm”，所以相关学历（relevant degree）也在要求之内，排除C。根据“McDeere was a male, andthere were no women in the firm”可知，男性（male）也是公司的招聘要求。故答案为B项。
24. D 推断题。第三段讲公司派人调查了McDeere在校的表现甚至是一些琐碎的私人生活细节，由此可以推断该公司对McDeere的任何个人细节都感兴趣。
25. A 推断题。第五段第二句中讲到“He had been brought along to look young and act young and project ayouthful image...”（他看上去年轻而且举止显得很年轻，这样可以给公司树立一种充满活力的形象），可见Lama Quin之所以被安排参加面试，是因为他的形象可以给McDeere留下印象。故答案为A项。
26. C 细节题。根据第一段及第二段内容可知该公司在招聘时是精挑细选的（selective），该公司还派私人侦探去调查McDeere的个人情况，可知他们的招聘是秘密的（secretive）。另外，根据第一段第六句“He was white, and the firm had never hired a black（他是白人，公司从来不雇佣黑人。）”可知该公司在招聘中是有种族偏见的（racially biased）。所以答案为C项，公司招聘不是马马虎虎的。perfunctory敷衍了事的，马马虎虎的。
①solicit v. 征求；招揽；请求；乞求
②turbulent adj. 混乱的；吵闹的
③dossier n. 档案，卷宗；病历表册
④nonchalantly adv. 冷淡地，漠不关心地
Harry Trumandidn’t think his successor had the right training to be president. “Poor Ike—itwon’t be a bit like the Army,” he said. “He’ll sit there all day saying ‘dothis, do that,’ and nothing will happen.” Truman was wrong about Ike. DwightEisenhower had led a fractious alliance—you didn’t tell Winston Churchill whatto do—in a massive, chaotic war. He was used to politics. But Truman’s insightcould well be applied to another, even more venerated Washington figure: theCEO—turned cabinet secretary.
A 20-year bullmarket has convinced us all that CEOs are geniuses, so watch with astonishmentthe troubles of Donald Rumsfeld and Paul O’ Neill. Here are two highly regardedbusinessmen, obviously intelligent and well-informed, foundering in their jobs.
Actually,we shouldn’t be surprised. Rumsfeld and O’ Neill are not doing badly despitehaving been successful CEOs but because of it. The record of senior businessmenin government is one of almost unrelieved disappointment. In fact, with theexception of Robert Rubin, it is difficult to think of a CEO who had asuccessful career in government.
Why is this?Well, first the CEO has to recognize that he is no longer the CEO. He is atbest an adviser to the CEO, the president. But even the president is not reallythe CEO. No one is. Power in a corporation is concentrated and verticallystructured. Power in Washington is diffuse and horizontally spread out. Thesecretary might think he’s in charge of his agency. But the chairman of thecongressional committee funding that agency feels the same. In his famous study“Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents,” Richard Neustadt explains howlittle power the president actually has and concludes that the only lastingpresidential power is “the power to persuade.”
Take Rumseld’sattempt to transform the cold-war military into one geared for the future. It’sinnovative but deeply threatening to almost everyone in Washington. The Defensesecretary did not try to sell it to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Congress, thebudget office of the White House. As a result, the idea is collapsing.
Second, whatpower you have, you must use carefully. For example, O’ Neill’s position asTreasury secretary is one with little formal authority. Unlike Financeministers around the world, Treasury does not control the budget. But it hassymbolic power. The secretary is seen as the chief economic spokesman for theadministration and, if he plays it right, the chief economic adviser for thepresident.
O’ Neill hasbeen publicly critical of the IMF’s bailout packages for developing countrieswhile at the same time approving such packages for Turkey, Argentina andBrazil. As a result, he has gotten the worst of both worlds. The bailoutscontinue, but their effect in holstering investor confidence is limited becausethe markets are rattled by his skepticism.
Perhaps thegovernment doesn’t do bailouts well. But that leads to a third rule: you can’tjust quit. Jack Welch’s famous law for re-engineering General Electric was tobe first or second in any given product category, or else get out of thatbusiness. But if the government isn’t doing a particular job at peak level, itdoesn’t always have the option of relieving itself of that function. ThePentagon probably wastes a lot of money. But it can’t get out of the national-securitybusiness. The key to former Treasury secretary Rubin’s success may have beenthat he fully understood that business and government are, in his words,“necessarily and properly very different.” In a recent speech he explained,“Business functions around one predominate organizing principle, profitability... Government, on the other hand, deals with a vast number of equallylegitimate and often potentially competing objectives—for example, energyproduction versus environmental protection, or safety regulations versus productivity.”
Rubin’s exampleshows that talented people can do well in government if they are willing totreat it as its own separate, serious endeavour. But having been bathed in aculture of adoration and flattery, it’s difficult for a CEO to believe he needsto listen and learn, particularly from those despised and poorly paidspecimens, politicians, bureaucrats and the media. And even if he knows itintellectually, he just can’t live with it.
27. For a CEO to be successful in government,he has to _____.
A. regard thepresident as the CEO
B. takeabsolute control of his department
C. exercisemore power than the congressional committee
D. becomeacquainted with its power structure
28. In commenting on O’ Neill’s record as Treasury Secretary, thepassage seems to indicate that _____.
A. O’ Neill hasfailed to use his power well
B. O’ Neillpolicies were well received
C. O’ Neill hasbeen consistent in his policies
D. O’ Neilluncertain about the package he’s approved
29. According to the passage, the differences between government andbusiness lie in the following areas EXCEPT _____.
A. nature ofactivity
B. option ofwithdrawal
C. legitimacyof activity
30. The author seems to suggest thatCEO-turned government officials _____.
A. are able tofit into their new roles
B. are unlikelyto adapt to their new roles
C. can respondto new situations intelligently
D. may feeluncertain in their new posts
27. D 细节题。根据第四段第四句“But even the president is not really the CEO.”可排除A项。根据第四段第七句“Power in Washingtonis diffuse and horizontally spread out.”（政府权力是分散的，是水平分布的），所以他对其负责部门不必绝对控制，可排除B项。C项在文中并未提及，故也可排除。所以正确答案为D项。
28. A 推理题。第六段以O’Neill当TreasurySecretary为例，论述了必须慎用权力。第七段第二句讲到“As a result, he has gotten the worst of both worlds. The bailoutscontinue,...are rattled by his skepticism.”（结果，他两边不讨好。O’Neill对所支持的财政救援持有怀疑态度，而他的这种怀疑态度影响了应急救援在维持投资者信息方面的效果）。所以，这说明O’Neill没有行使好自己的权力。
29. C 细节题。第九段第二句讲到“Business functions around...profitability Government,...equallylegitimate and often potentially competing objective...（公司是按照主要的组织规则——盈利——运转的，而政府却要与许多有相同的合法性，通常是其潜在竞争目标的部门打交道。）”所以两者的行为性质是不同的，排除选项A。第八段第二句讲到“...you can’t just quit. Jack Welch’s famous law...it doesn’t alwayshave the option of relieving itself of that function.（你不能退出。杰克韦尔奇重新设计通用电气的著名理论就是在任何产品类别里要其产品占据第一或第二的位置，否则就退出该领域。）”由此可以看出商业部门有其自由撤出的权力而政府部门一般不可，故排除B项。第四段第六句说“Power in a corporation...is diffuse and horizontally spread out”，所以两者权力分布也不同，排除D项。故答案为C项。
30. B 细节题。作者在最后一段中指出“But having been bathed in a culture of...he just can’t live with it.”（CEO长期习染崇拜、奉承的文化，因而他们很难相信自己有必要去听取别人的意见或学习他人的优点，特别是那些为人们所不齿的政客、官僚和媒体，而他们即使清楚地认识有这个必要，也不会那样做），故答案为B项。
①venerate v. 崇敬，尊敬
②bailout n. 融资
SECTION B SKIMMINGAND SCANNING [10 min]
In thissection there are seven passages with ten multiple-choice questions. Skim orscan them as required and then mark your answers on COLORED ANSWER SHEET.
First read the question.
31. The passage is mainly concerned with____ in the U.S.A.
B. big cities
Now go through TEXT E quickly to answerquestion 31.
Planning toanswer your e-mail while on holiday in New York? That may not be easy. TheInternet may have been invented in the United States, but America is one of theleast likely places where a traveller might find an Internet cafe. “Every majorcity in the world has more cybercafes than New York,” says Joie Kelly, who runsCyberCafeGuide.com. The numbers seem to bear her out: according to variousdirectories, London has more than 30, Paris 19, Istanbul 17, but New York hasonly 8. Other U.S. cities fare just as poorly: Los Angeles has about 11,Chicago has 4. “Here it’s quite hard work to find a cafe. I was surprised,” saysMichael Robson, a sportswriter from York, England, who was visibly relieved tobe checking his e-mail at CyberCafe near New York’s Times Square.
Why the lack ofplaces to plug in? Americans enjoy one of the highest rates of Internet accessfrom work and home in the world, and they’ve never really taken to cafes. About80 percent of CyberCafe’s clients, for instance, are tourists from overseas.Greek tycoon Stelios HajiIoannou also thinks high prices drive away locals.Last November he opened a branch of his Internet-cafe chain easyEverything inTimes Square. With 800 terminals, it’s the largest Net cafe in the world. Whilethe typical American cafe charges $ 8 to $ 12 an hour, easyEverything charges$1 to 4. Marketing manager Stephaine Engelsen says half the cafe’s customersare locals. “We get policemen, firemen, nurses who don’t work at desks withcomputers, actors between auditions.” easyEverything is now planning to opennew locations in Harlem, and possibly SoHo. Unless there’s some cultural shiftafoot, however, New York will continue to lag behind metropolises from MexicoCity to Moscow.
31. C 主旨题。根据第一段和第二段的开头以及上下文的联系，可知本文主要讨论的是美国网吧。
First read the question.
32. In the passage below the authorprimarily attempts to _____.
A. criticizeyogis in the West
B. define whatyoga is
C. teach yogapostures
D. experimentwith yoga
Now go through TEXT F quickly to answerquestion 32.
Most of theso-called yogis in the West seem to focus on figure correction, not trueawareness. They make statements about yoga being for the body, mind and soul.But this is just semantics. Asanas (postures), which get such huge play in theWest, are the smallest aspect of yoga. Either you practice yoga as a whole oryou don’t. If one is practicing just for health, better to take up walking.Need to cure a disease? See a doctor. Yoga is not about fancy asanas or breathcontrol. Nor is it a therapy or a philosophy. Yoga is about inside awareness.It is the process of union of the self with the whole. Yoga is becoming theBuddha.
Yogis areexperimentalists. In the West, scientists research mainly external phenomena.Yogis focus on the inside. They know that the external world is maya(illusionary) and everything inside is sathya (truth). In maya everything goes,but if you know yourself nothing goes. The West tends to practice only what wecall cultural asanas that focus on the external. We don’t practice asanas justto become fit. Indian yogis have discovered 8.4 million such postures. It isessential to train our bodies to find the most comfortable pose that we can sitin for hours. Beyond that there is no role for physical yoga.
Basically yogais made up of two parts: bahirang (external yoga) and antarang (internal yoga).The West practices only the former. It needs to enter into antarang yoga. Afterthat begins the trip to the unknown where the master makes the studentgradually aware at every stage, where you know that you are not the body or themind and not even the soul. That is when you get the first taste of moksha, orenlightenment. It is the sense of the opening of the silence, the sense whereyou lose yourself and are happy doing it, where for the first time your ego hasmerged with the superconsciousness. You feel you no longer exist, for you havewalked into the valley of death. And if you start walking more and more in thisvalley, you become freer.
32. B 主旨题。作者明确介绍了什么是真正的瑜珈，虽然指出了西方修行者的一些不正确的做法，但是没有批评之意。所以答案为选项B。
First read the question.
33. The reviewer’s comments on HenryKissinger’s new book are basically _____.
Now go through TEXT G quickly to answerquestion 33.
Whatever youthink of Henry Kissinger, you have to admit: the man has staying power. With anew book—Does America Need a Foreign Policy?—on the shelves, Kissinger is onceagain helping to shape American thinking on foreign relations. This is thesixth decade in which that statement can be said to be true.
Kissinger’s newbook is terrific. Plainly intended as an extended tutorial on policy for thenew American Administration, it is full of good sense and studded with occasionalinsights that will have readers nodding their heads in silent agreement. Aparticularly good chapter on Asia rebukes anyone who unthinkingly assigns Chinathe role once played by the Soviet Union as the natural antagonist of the U.S.
Kissinger’s bookcan also be read in another, and more illuminating, light. It is, in essence,an extended meditation on the end of a particular way of looking at the world:one where the principal actors in international relations are nation-states,pursuing their conception of their own national interest, and in which thebasic rule of foreign policy is that one nation does not intervene in theinternal affairs of another.
Students ofinternational relations call this the “Westphalian system,” after the 1648Peace of Westphalia that ended Europe’s Thirty Years War, a time ofindescribable carnage waged in the name of competing religions. The treatiesthat ended the war put domestic arrangements—like religion—off limits to otherstates. In the war’s aftermath a rough-rand-ready commitment to a balance ofpower among neighbours took shape. Kissinger is a noted school of the balanceof power. And he is suspicious of attempts to meddle in the internal businessof others.
Yet Kissinger isfar too sophisticated to attempt to recreate a world that is lost. “Today,” hewrites, “the Westphalian order is in systematic crisis.” In particular,nation-states are no longer the sole drivers of the international system. Insome cases, groups of states—like the European Union or Mercosur—have developedtheir own identities and agendas. Economic globalization has both blurred theboundaries between nations and given a substantial international role to thosegiant companies for whom such boundaries make little sense. In today’s world,individuals can be as influential as nations; future historians may considerthe support for public health of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to bemore noteworthy than last week’s United Nations conference on AIDS. And a largenumber of institutions are premised on the assumption that intervention in theinternal affairs of others is often desirable. Were that not the case, SlobodanMilosevic would not have been surrendered last week to the jurisdiction of thewar crimes tribunal in the Hague.
The consequencesof these changes are profound. Kissinger is right to note that globalizationhas undermined the role of the nation-state less in the case of the U.S. (Why?Because it’s more powerful than anyone else.) Elsewhere, the old ways ofthinking about the “national interest”—that guiding light of the Westphaliansystem—have fewer adherents than they once did.
33. D 细节题。根据第二段、第三段的第一句、第六段的第二句可知，作者对基辛格的新书持肯定态度。
First read the question.
34. In the passage the author expresses hisconcern about _____.
A. the survivalof small languages
B.globalization in the post-Cold War era
C. present-daytechnological progress
Now go through TEXT H quickly to answerquestion 34.
During the pastcentury, due to a variety of factors, more than 1 000 of the world’s languageshave disappeared, and it is possible to foresee a time, perhaps 100 years fromnow, when about half of today’s 6 000 languages will either be dead or dying.
This startlingrate of linguistic extinction is possible because 96 per cent of the world’slanguages are now spoken only by 4 per cent of the world’s population.
Globalization inthe post-Cold War era has witnessed the coming of the information age, whichhas played an important role in promoting economic co-operation but which has,at the same time, helped facilitate the assimilation of smaller culturalsystems into a larger, mostly English-speaking whole.
Internet andother forms of mass media have succeeded in making English the worldwidestandard.
In 1998, the Seminaron Technological Progress & Development of the Present-day World was heldin China. At the seminar, many participants expressed concern over thepotential risks associated with excessive dependency on information technology.These critics claimed a move from “information monopoly” to “informationhegemony” could possibly become just another way for the strong to dominate theweak, culturally as well as economically.
In other words,life in a technology-and information-based global society may lead to a newsocial stratification, in which linguistic assimilation will lead to culturalassimilation and social injustice will abound.
In the 20thcentury, human society’s over-development caused the deterioration of theenvironment and ecological imbalance. The extinction of myriad biologicalspecies aroused deep concern which led people to an understanding of thespecial importance of protecting rare animals and plants on the brink ofextinction.
Now we face thequestion, is the maintenance of cultural and linguistic diversity as importantas the preservation of pandas and Chinese white-flag dolphins?
Given the opensociety in which we live, or wish to live, this question becomes complicated. Abalance must be struck between promoting international exchanges on the onehand, and taking measures to protect “small” languages on the other hand.
Most widely usedlanguages, such as the six working languages—including English and Chiese—usedin the United Nations, have little to fear and need no special protection.
But for other,more marginal languages some measures should be taken. Professionals should betrained to study and use them in order to keep them alive. Effective measuressuch as bilingual or multilingual education should also be implemented toprotect them from extinction.
To some, 6 000may seem like an inexhaustible number of languages. To those same people, itmay seem irrelevant if one or two of those languages cease to be used.
But what manyfail to realize is that language and culture are linked. Without one, the otherdies, and so with the death of different languages we have the death ofdifferent cultures. The extinction of languages is equal to animal extinctionin this respect. The fading away of a language, no matter how small, causesreal damage to the “ecological balance” in the field of culture.
34. A 细节题。文章开篇第一段讲到小语种正在逐渐消失。根据各段开头句子可知，文章主要围绕language, linguistic extinction进行论述。故答案为A项。
First read the questions.
35. The work of Project Manager is chieflyconcerned with ____.
A. emergencyrelief programmes
C. helicopterassisted surveys
36. The working contract is offered on a____ basis.
Now go through TEXT I quickly to answerquestions 35 and 36.
AGRICULTURAL REHABILITATION PROJECT, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA
SCF started workin Ethiopia in 1973 with an emergency relief programme in response to thefamine of that year. Since then SCF has been involved in a range of longer-termrelief and development programmes to secure lasting benefits for children.
As a result of ahelicopter assisted survey undertaken in the northern highlands of Ethiopia in2000, SCF has been involved in a number of interventions aimed at engaging withthe agricultural sector in order to promote food security in the mostvulnerable areas of North Wollo.
As ProjectManager your key task will be to manage, promote and develop all SCF’sactivities in the agriculture / livestock and natural resources sectors inWollo. You will also play a major role in developing policy at national level.
To meet thechallenge of this exciting new post you will need a relevant post graduatequalification; substantial experience in managing agricultural developmentprojects in Africa with an emphasis on providing institutional support to thecapacity of extension services while prompting farmer participation; ability tothink and plan strategically; proven team management skills; report writing andfinancial skills; willingness to travel extensively and live and work in an isolatedlocation.
This post isoffered on a twelve-month contract with a salary of £ 19 294(normally tax-free). You can also expect a generous benefitspackage including all flights and reasonable living and accommodation expenses.
For furtherdetails and an application form please apply with CV to Jenny Thomas, OverseasPersonnel Administrator, SCF, 17 Grove Lane, London SE5 8RD
Closing date:30th November 2001.
35. B 细节题。从本则招聘启事的副标题AGRICULTURAL REHABILITATION PROJECT即可知答案为B项。
36. D 细节题。根据第五段第一句中“a twelve-month contract with a salary”，可知答案为D项。
First read the questions.
37. Who have found a protein called M2?
A. Scientistsfrom a Belgium University.
B. Drug-makersin Belgium.
C. Doctors in aBelgium hospital.
D. It is notmentioned.
38. How many causes of bad breath does thepassage cite?
Now go through TEXT J quickly to answerquestions 37 and 38.
The Common Cold?
The conventionalwisdom says no, but by mid-century that assessment—along with the sniffles—maywell be ancient history. Colds are considered incurable today because it wouldtake months to come up with a vaccine for every new strain. That’s fine for theflu, which breeds in animals and only jumps over to humans every year or two.But colds mutate even while they’re infecting you, and new strains pop up sooften that by the time drug-makers create a vaccine against one variation, theserum is already out of date.
The flu may yetpoint the way toward a cold cure though. Scientists at the University of Ghent,in Belgium, have found a protein called M2 that seems to be present invirtually every flu strain known to man. Using that knowledge, they have made avaccine that they think could protect against all flus—old, new and those notyet in existence.
If a similarprotein is found in cold viruses—a protein that’s present no matter what strainis involved—then it is possible that by 2025 or so, children could be getting auniversal cold vaccine. And then they will have to listen to us old geezersreminisce about the days when we used to carry a small white cloth called ahandkerchief.
Bad Breath? Afraidnot. Bad breath isn’t an illness; it’s merely a symptom of something else. Insome cases, the something else really is an illness—some kidney disorder or aninfection. Infections can usually be cured, and if you’re suffering from anincurable one or from another serious condition, bad breath is the least ofyour problems.
Another cause isfoods like onions or garlic, in which case you’re out of luck: essential oilsfrom such foods get into the blood, then into the lungs, then out with eachexhaled breath. Even in the 21st century, if you want the flavour, you riskdisflavour.
The most commonreason for bad breath, though, is, to put it delicately, food molecules rottingin the mouth. Mouthwash masks the smell, but ultimately you have to get rid ofthe stuff. Brushing removes larger particles, but dentists suggest brushing theback of the tongue as well, where food residues and bacteria congregate. Themicroscopic bits that remain must be flushed down by drink or saliva. But ifyou’re waiting for a true cure, it won’t happen until we eat all our food inpill form. In other words, don’t hold your breath.
37. A 细节题。根据第二段第二句“Scientists at the University of Ghent, in Belgium, have found aprotein called M2...”，所以答案为A项。
38. C 细节题。在标题为BAD BREATH的三段文字中，分别给出了导致口气不清新的三个原因：an illness，foods like onions or garlic和food molecules，故正确答案为C项。
First read the questions.
39. When did Moore receive his firstcommission?
A. In 1948.
B. In 1946.
C. In 1931.
D. In 1928.
40. Where did Moore win his firstinternational prize?
A. In London.
B. In Venice.
C. In New York.
D. In Hamburg.
Now go through TEXT K quickly to answerquestions 39 and 40.
Henry Moore, theseventh of eight children of Raymond Spencer Moore and his wife Mary, was bornin Yorkshire on 30 July 1898. After graduating from secondary school, Mooretaught for a short while. Then the First World War began and he enlisted in thearmy at the age of eighteen. After the war he applied for and received anex-serviceman’s grant to attend Leeds School of Art. At the end of his secondyear he won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art in London.
In 1928 Mooremet Irina Radetsky, a painting student at the college, whom he married a yearlater. The couple then moved into a house which consisted of a smallground-floor studio with an equally small flat above. This remained theirLondon home for ten years.
Throughout the 1920’s Moore was involved in the art life of London. His first commission, received in 1928, was to produce a sculpture relief for the newly opened headquarters of LondonTransport. His first one-man exhibition opened at the Warren Gallery in 1928;it was followed by a show at the Leicester Galleries in 1931 and his first saleto a gallery abroad- the Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg. His successcontinued.
In 1946 Moorehad his first foreign retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modem Art, NewYork. In 1948 he won the International Sculpture Prize at the 24th VeniceBiennale, the first of countless international accolades acquired in succeedingyears. At the same time sales of Moore’s work around the world increased, asdid the demand for his exhibitions. By the end of 1970’s the number of exhibitions had grown to an average of forty a year, ranging from the very small to major international retrospectives taking years of detailed planning and preparation.
The main themesin Moore’s work included the mother and child, the earliest work created in1922, and the reclining figure dating from 1926. At the end of the 1960’s came stringed figures based on mathematical models observed in the Science Museum, and the first helmet head, a subject that later developed into the internal-externaltheme- variously interpreted as a hard form coveting a soft, like a motherprotecting her child or a foetus inside a womb.
A few yearsbefore his death in 1986 Moore gave the estate at Perry Green with its studios,houses and cottages to the Trustees of the Henry Moore Foundation to promotesculpture and the fine arts within the cultural life of the country and inparticular the works of Henry Moore.
39. D 细节题。根据第三段第二句“His first commission, received in 1928...”，可知答案为D项。
40. B 细节题。根据第四段第二句“...won the International Sculpture Prize at the 24th VeniceBiennale, the first of countless international accolades...”，所以答案为B项。
PART Ⅳ TRANSLATION[60 MIN]
SECTION A CHINESETO ENGLISH
Translate thefollowing text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
Before I fellill, my parents doted on me a lot. I acted willfully at home. Once I wasisolated and confined in a chamber on the hillside of the garden, I suddenlyfelt I was neglected and became very depressed. One spring evening, my parentsheld a Banquet in the garden, where all sorts of flowers were in full bloom. Inno time, a crowd of their guests collected and laughter was heard all overthere. I quietly lifted the curtain of the chamber, only to spy the bustle of akaleidoscopic world down in the garden. I saw my elder sisters, brothers and mycousins, each full of the joys of spring, shuttling among the guests. All of asudden, I was possessed by the feeling of being abandoned. Stuck by both griefand indignation, I could not help crying bitterly
1. “宠爱”可译为“dote on”。
2. “在家中横行霸道”可译为“act willfully at home”。
3. “拘禁”可译为“confined in”。
4. “被打入冷宫”可意译为“be neglected”。
5. “设宴”可译为“hold a Banquet”。
7. “大千世界”可译为“a kaleidoscopic world”。
SECTION B ENGLISHTO CHINESE
Translate thefollowing text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
In his classicnovel, “The Pioneers”, James Fenimore Cooper has his hero, a land developer,take his cousin on a tour of the city he is building. He describes the broadstreets, rows of houses, a teeming metropolis. But his cousin looks aroundbewildered. All she sees is a forest. “Where are the beauties and improvementswhich you were to show me?” she asks. He’s astonished she can’t see them.“Where! Why everywhere,” he replies. For thought they are not yet built onearth, he has built them in his mind, and they are as concrete to him as ifthey were already constructed and finished.
Cooper wasillustrating a distinctly American trait, future-mindedness: the ability to seethe present from the vantage point of the future; the freedom to feelunencumbered by the past and more emotionally attached to things to come. AsAlbert Einstein once said, “Life for the American is always becoming, neverbeing.”
2. the vantage point of the future可译为“未来的有利角度”。
4. emotionally attached to可译为“在情感上依附于”。
PART Ⅴ WRITING [60MIN]
An Englishnewspaper is currently running a discussion on whether young people in Chinatoday are (not) more self-centered and unsympathetic than were previousgenerations. And the paper is inviting contributions from university students.You have been asked to write a short article for the newspaper to air yourviews.
Your articleshould be about 300 words in length. In the first part of your article youshould state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you shouldsupport your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you shouldbring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.
You shouldsupply a title for your article.
Marks will beawarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to followthe above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
Write yourcomposition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.
Love, and Then Be Loved
In recent years,more and more teachers complain that their students are indifferent to others.Some even worry that the young generation might ruin the future of China. To besure, many of our young people cannot see eye to eye with① this view. However, as auniversity student, I myself would like to content that we young people todayare in general more self-centered and unsympathetic than our previousgenerations.
To start with, most, if not all,young people choose to attend exclusively to② their own needs. In their eyes, it is alltoo natural to seek satisfaction from what they do, even if it may meaninconvenience to others. Take my dormitory for example. It is a common scenehere that a roommate cheerfully talks to his girlfriend on the phone atmidnight when others are struggling for③ a sound sleep. One may complain now andthen, but to no avail④. In fact, the others, to the exclusion of⑤ me, live their dormitorylife much in the same way. When I take a nap at noon, they often play cards.They have no regard for⑥ others. Life is a joy to them, yet they often enjoy it to theneglect of others’ feelings.
In sharp contrast, our caringparents always pay heed to⑦ our needs and those of others. Whenever my father comes back home latein the night, he tiptoes in for fear that he might awake me.
Moreover, our young people tend tobe insensitive to others’ difficulty. When a classmate falls ill, few peopleoffer to help, but regard it as none of their business. Some students in my classcome from poor families. Yet, they are active mobile phone users, who may spendtwice as much as what their parents earn from arduous labor. When asked whythey behave so, they answer that their parents have the obligation toaccommodate their expenses. Personally, I detest their answer, for I know myparents never thought in that way when they were young. Being aware of theirparents’ financial difficulties, they managed to save every penny they could.
For the abovereasons and those not mentioned here, I subscribe to the view that young peoplein today’s China are more self-centered and unsympathetic than were ourprevious generations. It is high time that we learned from older generations sothat a harmonious and splendid future can be anticipated.
第二段作者从两方面进行论述自己的观点，一方面，现在的年轻人只关心自己的需求；另一方面，现在的年轻人对别人的困难漠不关心。两个要点分别用to start with 和moreover连接，结构清晰明了；同时，在论述观点时运用举例论证和对比论证，使文章更有说服力和强烈的对比感。
①seeeye to eye with和……意见相同
④to noavail 无效，完全无用
⑤to theexclusion of排除掉
⑥haveno regard for 置之度外，将一切事物置身事外
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