杭州师范大学外国语学院830翻译与写作历年考研真题及详解

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摘要 : 目录封面内容简介目录2013年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解2014年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解2015年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解2016年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解2017年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解2018年杭州师范大...
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2013年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解
2014年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解
2015年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解
2016年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解
2017年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解
2018年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解
2019年杭州师范大学830翻译与写作考研真题及详解
说明:部分年份的科目代码会有变动,各年真题的科目代码也可能不一样。
内容简介 本书收集了杭州师范大学外国语学院“翻译与写作”2013~2019年的考研真题(注意:部分年份的科目代码会有变动,各年真题的科目代码也可能不一样),且所有真题均提供详细的参考答案及解析。
说明:①往年科目代码是815或者830,科目名称是“翻译与写作”,本书采用近年科目代码和名称,即“830翻译与写作”。②本书精心搜集了市面上的历年真题,并整理了答案详解,备考价值尤为珍贵!若需要纸质内容,可以申请定制打印版,详情咨询在线客服!
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2013年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解

Ⅰ. Translate thefollowing passage from English into Chinese. (40 points)
All these assetshave lured people to those areas tired of typical city or modern village. Thepeople looking for the timeless values in the beauty of nature and in thepreserved culture of the site. The less affluent have become more attractivecustomers. Agritourism came to burgeon anew. Agritourist businesses emerged,the symbols of which became, for instance, the stork, the bird that always wasan inseparable companion of Polish agricultural landscape.
The ecologicalapproach to life has enlivened agricultural economy and allowed traditionallandscape to survive. Ecological farming has gained widespread popularity, ashas its associated ecotourism. It became apparent that in small-size countiesand villages the locals have more to offer than large agglomerations have. Thisby no means caused depopulation of towns but indeed called attention to thevalue of the landscape—both aesthetic and functional ones.
From theconservator’s standpoint only partly are we able to influence the changesoccurring in the landscape including agricultural landscape. This is feasibleby setting up landscape protection zones. The zones can secure vistas, guardagainst defacing of landscape by building developments. The conservationprotection zones, thanks to their requirements permit old timber developmentsof Polish village to survive. It is not, however, where lies the major problemof protection and preservation of historic agricultural landscape.
【参考译文】
所有的这些资产都将厌倦了典型城市生活或是现代农村的人们引诱到那些地方。人们在自然美和文化遗产中找寻永恒的价值。不那么富裕的人们反而变成了更有吸引力的顾客。农业旅游再度崛起。农业旅游业出现了,其标志也随之出现。比如,鹳鸟,这鸟一直都是波兰农业景观不可或缺的伴侣。
生活方式的生态化使农业经济活跃起来,传统景观得以生存。生态农业正如相关的生态旅游一样得到广泛的普及。显而易见,小县城和小村庄的当地人比大城市的人们具备更多优势。这绝对不会引发城镇人口减少,但却是引起了对景观价值的注意力,这种价值既有美学上的又有功能上的。
从保护者的角度来看,对于包括农业景观在内的景观中发生的变化,我们只能施以部分影响。设立景观保护区使这一想法可行。保护区能保护景观,防止建筑开发损害景观。多亏了这些保护区的请求准许,波兰村庄的旧木材发展业才得以幸存。然而,历史性农业景观的保护与保存的主要问题并不在此。

Ⅱ. Translate thefollowing passage from Chinese into English. (40 points)
大运河,一条宽广的河,三千里古道去留无意,写尽神州秀山丽水、高天厚土;拱宸桥,一座挺拔的桥,四百年沧桑荣辱不惊,看遍华夏潮起潮落,云卷云舒。
古运河边,拱宸桥畔,静静地矗立着一所百年老校,大仙庙的悠悠钟声敲响了它的第一堂课,千年运河水滋润了一代代学子柔软的心灵,它就是杭州市拱宸桥小学,这里的人们亲切地称它为“拱小”。
百年拱小,风景这边独好。近年来,这所古老的小学以跨越式的发展,书写了一个“平民小学”的教育传奇。名不见经传的拱小,一跃成为杭城百姓心中的名校。到过这里的人们都说:真实的拱小,远比传说中的更加令人惊叹!
【参考译文】
The Grand Canalis a vast river with a route of three thousand miles. The gorgeous landscape ofthe divine land can be seen along it. The Gongchen Bridge is a magnificentbridge with a history of four hundred years. It has witnessed the ebb and flow,the gathering and spreading of clouds of China.
There stands aschool with a hundred-year-old history beside the Grand Canal and the GongchenBridge. The long bell of the Daxian Temple rounded its first class. The waterof the canal moistened the soft soul of a generation of students. It was theHangzhou Gongchen Bridge Primary School, and it’s called Gong Xiao by localpeople cordially.
The scenery isunique here. In recent years, this ancient primary school has written aneducational legend of “civilian primary school” by its leaping development. Theobscure Gong Xiao has become a famous school in civilian’s mind. People whohave been here always say that the real Gong Xiao is far more amazing than itis said to be.

Ⅲ. Please write in English at least 400 words acommentary essay on the following statement: How to solve the housing problemin big cities. Pay attention to the focus of your theme, development of ideas,origination of structures and choice of dictions. (40 points)
【参考范文】
How to Solve the Housing Problem in Big Cities
The populationon earth is increasing rapidly, and with the development of modern industry,more and more people are flowing into cities. Due to the limited space ofcities, there comes the housing problem. Generally, it’s an inevitable problemalong the development accession of cities. We couldn’t avoid it if we want todevelop our cities. Then with it becoming more and more serious, what should wedo to solve the housing problem in big cities?
I suppose thatbuilding satellite cities in suburbs would help. We can find a lot ofsuccessful examples in other countries which solve the housing problem in thisway. As early as the early twentieth century, the United Kingdom proposed theconstruction of satellite cities to solve the problem of urbanization and putit into practice. In the 1950s and 1960s, there was a climax of the UnitedStates and Japan to move residential houses to the suburbs and build satellitecities. They used a period of time to build a new town with the functions ofresidential, shopping, entertainment and other functions. All these examplestell us that building satellite cities can contribute to the solution of thehousing problem in big cities. Building satellite cities will not only relievethe burden on the big city, but also provide a much better environment forpeople to live. We all know that people in big cities suffer a lot from theovercrowded living conditions. If chances are offered to leave the crowdedcenter and get a decent job near big cities, many people would seize theopportunity. After all, the fresh air and beautiful scenery are veryattractive.
After that, advancedinfrastructure construction and good working opportunities should be ensured.On the one hand, advanced infrastructure construction is essential. Settingdown in a city means to live in it. The medical conditions, educationconditions and the economic conditions are all in people’s consideration. Withoutgood infrastructure construction, people wouldn’t move to those areas howeverlow the housing price is. On the other hand, working opportunities in satellitecities are significant, too. Most people come to the big cities for the numerousworking opportunities and the fast development of their career. If satellitecities are built, working opportunities should be broadened. If people live ina satellite city and still work in the original big city, traffic problemswould arise.
In short,building satellite cities in suburbs would help to solve the housing problem inbig cities. Meanwhile, advanced infrastructure constructions and good workingopportunities must be ensured in satellite cities.
【范文点评】
本文围绕如何解决大城市的住房问题展开论述。第一段分析了大城市住房问题产生的原因,引出面对这一问题的解决办法。第二段阐述了解决大城市的住房问题应该建立卫星城,并举例说明了历史上建立卫星城的范例,表明这一举措是可取的。第三段简要描写了建立卫星城要注意的问题。最后一段总结论点。

Ⅳ. Please write in Chinese at least 800 words anargumentative essay on the following statement: 创新与语言研究. Payattention to the focus of your theme, development of ideas, origination ofstructures and choice of dictions. (30 points)
【参考范文】
人工智能时代的语言研究
在人类漫长的发展进化中,语言的出现无疑是一种体现人类创造性的最佳佐证之一。只有人类有真正的语言。许多动物虽然也能够发出声音来表示自己的感情或者在群体中传递信息,但是都只是一些固定的程式,不能随机变化。只有人类才会把无意义的语音按照各种方式组合成有意义的语素,再把语素按照各种方式组合成话语。人们用语言来抒情达意,用文字来记言记事。书册得以问世,世代相传,成为经典。为了方便后世的人读通这些经典,有人出来加以解释,这样就产生了语文学,这是语言学的早期形式。而在当今的人工智能时代,语言研究也经历了一系列的创新与发展。
人们可以通过语料库等分析、研究语言,而我们现在已经开始大量接触机器生成的语言了,在线翻译、机器人客服的自动答复,以及Siri、小冰等机器人。越来越多的文字工作和应用,正在被机器所替代,比如,天气预报、体育赛事的解说、新闻摘要等。一方面,机器语言目前还远远低于普通人类使用语言的能力,另一方面,计算语言学大有可为,以后的路还很长。以机器翻译为例,中国数学家、语言学家周海中教授曾在论文《机器翻译五十年》中指出:要提高机译的质量,首先要解决的是语言本身问题而不是程序设计问题;单靠若干程序来做机译系统,肯定是无法提高机译质量的。另外在尚未明了人脑是如何进行语言的模糊识别和逻辑判断的情况下,机译要想达到“信、达、雅”的程度是不可能的。人工智能的发展,认知语言学、心理语言学、社会语言学的研究成果陆续被运用到人机对话的设计中。利用人工智能进行语言研究的前景十分光明,语言研究者不应畏惧人工智能,要积极利用人工智能进行新式的语言研究。
时代在发展,语言学要想打破原有的局面,必须要注重创新,因为只有创新才能使我们获得新的视野,传统研究方法落后的手段与其局限性是造成语言学进展缓慢的重要因素之一,在人工智能时代,研究手段的进步必然会使语言研究获得迅猛的发展。因此,语言研究者要紧跟时代步伐,善于运用人工智能来高效地研究语言。
【范文点评】
本文从当今人工智能时代的大背景入手,谈及创新与语言研究。第一段简要描写了语言与语言研究的起源与发展。第二段提及了当今生活中利用人工智能进行语言研究的实例,表明了要利用新技术进行语言研究的观点。最后一段阐明了作者对于新时代语言研究的创新设想。
2014年杭州师范大学815翻译与写作考研真题及详解

Ⅰ. Translate thefollowing passage from English into Chinese. (40 points)
For, without beating about the bush, let us consider whatthe real state of art is. And first I must ask you to extend the word artbeyond those matters which are consciously works of art, to take in not onlypainting and sculpture, and architecture, but the shapes and colors of allhousehold goods, nay, even the arrangement of the fields for tillage andpasture, the management of towns and of our highways of all kinds; in a word,to extend it to the aspect of the externals of our life.
For I must ask you to believe that every one of the thingsthat goes to make up the surroundings among which we live must be eitherbeautiful or ugly, either elevating or degrading to us, either a torment andburden to the maker of it to make, or a pleasure and a solace to him. How doesit fare therefore with our external surroundings in these days?
What kind of an account shall we be able to give to thosewho come after us of our dealings with the earth, which our forefathers handeddown to us still beautiful, in spite of all the thousands of years of strifeand carelessness and selfishness?
【参考译文】
我就不拐弯抹角了,我们来考虑下艺术的真正状态是什么样的。首先,我们必须把“艺术”这个词的涵义拓展到有意识的艺术作品之外,其不仅仅是绘画、雕塑或建筑;还包括我们家庭用品的形状与颜色;甚至是耕地和牧场的布置;城镇和各类高速公路的规划。简单来说,就是延伸到我们的外部生活。
我们要知道,构成我们生活环境的每一个事物都是有美丑之分的。要么提升或贬低我们;要么为其制造者带来痛苦负担或是快乐慰藉。因此,在这些日子里,我们周围的环境变成什么样了呢?
在我们对地球做出的那些事过后,我们会为我们的后代留下笔什么账呢?毕竟在经历了数千年的纷争,粗心与自私的洗礼后,我们从祖先手中接过的地球依然美丽。

Ⅱ. Translate thefollowing passage from Chinese into English. (40 points)
运河千年流芳,拱墅自古繁华。新石器时代末期,在今上塘镇皋亭村水田畈一带就有人类活动。自隋唐以来,拱墅就是南北水陆交通要道和繁华商埠。至南宋时,得益于便捷的运河水运,成为各路商家的货物集散地,从大关桥至米市巷,“百货辐辏,商贾云集,千舻万舳,往返不绝”,成了名扬天下的“东南财赋之乡”。元代“北关夜市”成为钱塘八景之一。运河两岸距今四、五千年历史的半山水田畈遗址、富义仓遗址、小河直街历史文化街区等历史文化遗存,无不彰显着拱墅古老而璀璨的文明。
【参考译文】
The canal has been famous for thousands of years and GongShu has been flourishing since ancient times. There were humans living in thearea of Shui Tian Fan, Gao Ting Village of Shang Tang town since the end of theNeolithic age. Gong Shu has been the arterial road of north-south land andwater communication as well as a prosperous commercial port since the Sui andTang Dynasties. Owing to the convenient canal water communication, it has becomethe distributing center of goods of all kinds of merchants in Southern SongDynasty. From Daguan Bridge to the Mishi Lane, “Merchants from differentregions gathered here to sell a great deal of goods of various kinds. A largenumber of cargo ships made round trips”, it has become the well-known “hometownof fortune and tax income in southeast area”. “Beiguan Night Market” was one ofthe Qian Tang Eight Scenes in Yuan Dynasty. There are historical and culturalrelics with the history of four and five thousand years, such as the Ban ShanShui Tian Fan site, the Fu Yi Cang site, the historical and cultural block ofthe Xiao He Zhi street, which all manifest the ancient and bright Gong Shucivilization.

Ⅲ. Please write in English at least 400 words anargumentative essay on the following statement: If There Were NoAdvertisements. Pay attention to the focus of your theme, development of ideas,origination of structures and choice of dictions. (40 points)
【参考范文】
If There Were No Advertisements
Nowadays, advertisements can be found everywhere in bigcities. We are living in an environment swarming with those things. They shoutat us from the television and radio loudspeakers, wave to us from every page ofthe newspaper, signal to us from the roadside bill boards all day and flashmessages to us in colored lights all night.
Faced with a flood of advertisements, some people wonderwhether it is necessary to have such huge sums spent on advertising. They oftencite in illustration of it the attractive, but false and deceptiveadvertisements to which many consumers fall victim. They suggest that sinceadvertising is an entirely unproductive industry and may even harm thecustomers’ interests, why don’t we stop advertising and use the money to reducethe price of goods? It sounds like a good idea, but they fail to notice thecontribution advertising makes to our society. Because the production of abetter product to compete for customers’ money is the goal of advertisers,customers are thus given a chance to compare their products and get the bestand cheapest one. Besides, as the advertisement can provide people with a lotof immediate and detailed information as to the availability of a certainproduct, a service or a job, it makes life much more convenient. And anotherthing we shouldn’t forget: the fact that we pay so little for our dailynewspapers and TV programs is due entirely to the money spent by advertisers.
Now let’s imagine a world without advertisements. On the onehand, it would be very annoying to buy things. Once you want to buy somethings, there’s no channels for you to know about what exactly kind of stuff ismost suitable. You have to go to the supermarket and compare one brand withanother over and over. It’s absolutely a waste of time. On the other hand, lifewould become a little boring. Suppose when you are waiting for a bus or someoneon the street, it would be boring if you can’t find a single advertisement tokill time. And the topics to talk about with friends in daily life would bereduced a lot.
Advertising performs such a useful service to our societythat we can’t live happily if there were no advertisements despite that sometimesthey are really annoying. After all, there is no such thing in the world whichis one hundred percent perfect.
【范文点评】
本文以生活中所遇见的大量广告开篇,表达了大多数人都不满于铺天盖地的广告。紧接着第二段说明了一些人对于取消广告的设置的想法,并对此进行了分析,表明了广告的积极作用。第三段则是描述了没有广告的生活,进一步体现了广告在生活中不可或缺。最后一段作者重申了自己的观点,深化了主题。
Ⅳ. Please write inChinese. (30 points)
题目:语言的跨学科研究
要求:
1. 800词以上的议论文;
2. 结合语言研究需要不断创新、跨学科研究是创新的动力以及跨学科的语言研究有助于发现问题和解决问题。
【参考范文】
语言的跨学科研究
中华民族语言的出现及对语言研究的历史悠久。汉语,在历经了数千年的风雨洗礼后依然挺拔。现如今,人们对于语言研究的热情不减,但毋庸置疑,语言研究同样需要不断创新。创新是文化历久弥新的动力,同时也是语言研究不可忽视的部分。语言学研究一直存在着纵向和横向发展两种倾向,前者致力于建立自主语言学,后者力求在不同学科之间建立联系,以解决不同的复杂的语言问题。虽然两者对语言学的研究的发展在不同阶段都有贡献,但当前更倾向于跨学科发展。
当代语言学在同人文科学,自然科学和技术科学等学科的交叉中,逐渐产生了很多新兴的研究领域,并发展为语言学中的独立学科。新的研究视野和研究领域的拓展不断引发新的研究课题,从而推动了语言研究的发展。故而跨学科研究是创新的动力所在,其优势在于它能够,或者说,有条件利用相关学科的特长,从理论和方法上突破传统的语言研究方式,克服单一学科的不足。跨学科的语言研究能够发现传统语言研究方式的问题并对其加以解决。跨学科的语言研究无疑是一种进步。它不仅丰富了语言研究的内容,扩大了语言学的视野,从某种角度深化了语言研究,而且也为相关学科的进一步发展提供了养料。
唯物辩证法认为物质世界是普遍联系和永恒发展的,这是具有普遍指导意义的世界观和方法论。联系的观点是唯物辩证法的一个基本原则,一个基本观点。事物联系的普遍性,要求我们认识任何事物都必须坚持联系的观点,反对形而上学的孤立观点。可见,只有坚持用普遍联系的观点观察问题,才能达到对事物真理性的认识,否则,就会陷入片面性。提倡跨学科的语言研究,就是在语言研究方面促进人们贯彻与实施唯物辩证法关于普遍联系观点的重要实践,是推动人们在语言研究领域更加逼近真理的正确方向。
语言包含着各种信息,把这些不同的信息结合在一起,才能更全面、更清晰、更深入地了解语言是什么,才能理解人类的本质。因此,语言研究一定要有跨学科的宏观视野。这样语言研究才能不断的创新,在语言研究过程中发现的问题才能及时得到解决。
【范文点评】
本文以“语言研究需要采用跨学科研究的方法进行创新”为主题,简单论述了跨学科研究的作用。文章开头描述了当今时代更需要跨学科研究进行语言研究。第二段详细说明了跨学科语言研究的可行之处。第三段从哲学角度深入表明了跨学科研究的必要性。最后一段概述了作者的主要论点,点明主题。

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