I. Vocabulary andgrammar (30’)
Directions: Beneath each sentence there are four words or phrasesmarked A, B, C and D. Choose the answer that best completes the sentence. Markyour answers on your answer sheet.
1. Tom is the most ______pupil in the class.
2. The mayor of thecity is a ______ old man.
3. I believe reservesof coal here are ______ to last for fifty years.
4. Mr. Smith complainedabout the ______ air-conditioner he had bought from the company.
5. All the studentswere excited at the ______ of a weekend sports competition.
【解析】句意：所有学生一想到周末的运动竞赛都感到很兴奋。at the thought of固定搭配，一想到……。at theview of看到……的景象。at the idea of有……的想法。
6. The traveler’spassport established his ______.
7. When we credit the successful people withintelligence, physical strength or great luck, we are making excuses forourselves because we fall ______ in all three.
【解析】句意：我们在坚信成功人士拥有智慧、体能和好运的同时，也是在为自己开脱，认为自己缺少以上三者。fall (be) lacking in固定搭配，意为“缺少”。rare稀少。be short of缺少，be short for……的简称。be scarce for匮乏，缺乏。
8. My sister is quite ______and plans to get an M A. degree within one year.
9. The twins are somuch ______ that it is difficult to tell one from the other.
10. His eyes were injured in a traffic accident,but after a ______ operation, he quickly recovered his sight.
11. The chief foodseaten in any country depend largely on ______ best in its climate and soil.
A. it grown
B. does it grown
C. what grows
D. what does it grow
12. The fragrances of many natural substancescome from oils, ______ these oils may be used in manufacturing perfumes.
13. If only our team ______one more point!
B. had scored
D. have scored
【解析】句意：要是我们球队多进一球就好了。这里考查虚拟语气，对过去事件的虚拟结构如下：sb./sth. would/ could/ should have done sth., ifsth./sb. had(not) done sth.，从句应该用过去完成时，故选B。
14. ______, he couldnot lift the weight.
A. Strong while he was
B. However strong as he was
C. Strong as he was
D. Strong although he was
15. Tom is one of thetop students who ______ by the headmaster.
A. have been praised
B. has been praised
C. have praised
D. are praised
16. You could do it, ifyou ______ try hard enough.
【解析】句意：只要你足够努力就能够成功。本题考查虚拟语气，对将来情况的虚拟，表达方式为If sb. should do ..., sb. would/could do ...假如某人将……，某人将……。故选B。
17. The chairmanrequested that ______.
A. the members studies the problem more carefully
B. the problem would be more carefully studied
C. the members had studied the problem with more care
D. the problem be studied with more care
18. George wouldcertainly have attended the proceedings ______.
A. if he didn’t get a flat tire
B. if the flat tire hadn’t happened
C. had he not had a flat tire
D. had the tire not flattened itself
【解析】句意：假如乔治的轮胎没有漏气，他肯定会出席仪式。本题考查虚拟语气，对过去情况的虚拟结构如下：sb./sth. would/could/should have done sth., if sth./sb. had(not) done sth.，其中可以将had提前，其他语序不变，构成倒装句。A项时态不对。“轮胎漏气”的表达方式为“have/get a flat tire”，故选C。
19. I would appreciate ______it a secret.
A. you to keep
B. that you would keep
C. your keeping
D. that you are keeping
【解析】句意：如果你替我保密的话，我将非常感激你。“appreciate doing sth.”为固定搭配，排除A。中间可以加名词主格或者宾格构成独立主格结构，补充说明“doing”动作的发出者，C项正确。appreciate后也可跟that引导的宾语从句，但时态应与主句保持一致，用一般过去时，故B，D项错误。
20. We ______ theletter yesterday, but it didn’t arrive.
A. must receive
B. must have received
C. ought to receive
D. ought to have received
【解析】句意：我们本应该昨天就收到信，却没有来。ought to have received本应该……却没有……，符合句意。musthave received表示对过去的肯定猜测。
Ⅱ. Reading comprehension(40’)
Section 1 Multiplechoice (20’)
Directions: In this section there are reading passages followed bymultiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on youranswer sheet.
This year some twenty-three hundred teen-agers from allover the world will spend about ten months in U.S. homes. They will attend U.S.schools, meet U.S. teen-agers, and form lifelong impressions of the realAmerica. At the same time, about thirteen hundred American teen-agers will goabroad to learn new languages and gain a new understanding of world problems.On returning home they, like others who have participated in the exchangeprogram, will pass along their fresh impression to the youth groups in whichthey are active.
What have the visiting students discovered? A German boysays, “We often think of America only in terms of skyscrapers. Cadillacs, andgangsters. Americans think of Germany only in terms of Hitler and concentrationcamps. You can’t realize how wrong you are until you see for yourself.”
A Los Angeles girl says, “It’s the leaders of the countrieswho are unable to get along. The people get along just fine.”
Observe a two-way student exchange in action. Fred Herschbach,nineteen, spent last year in Germany at the home of George Pfafflin. In turn,Mr. Pfafflin’s son Michael spent a year in the Herschbach home in Texas.
Fred, lanky and lively, knew little German when he arrived,but after two months’ study the language began to come to him. School wastotally different from what he had expected—much more formal, much harder.Students rose respectfully when the teacher entered the room. They tookfourteen subjects instead of the six that are usual in the United States. Therewere almost no outside activities.
Family life, too, was different. The father’s word was law,and all activities revolved around the closely knit family unit rather than theindividual. Fred found the food—mostly starches—monotonous at first. Also, hemissed having a car.
“At home, you pick up some kids in a car and go out andhaven good time. In Germany, you walk, but you soon get used to it.”
A warm-natured boy, Fred began to make friends as soon ashe had mastered enough German to communicate. “I didn’t feel as if I were withforeigners. I felt as I did at home with my own people.” Eventually he wasinvited to stay at the homes of friends in many of Germany’s major cities. “One’sviewpoint is broadened,” he says, “by living with people who have differenthabits and backgrounds. You come to appreciate their points of view and realizethat it is possible for all people in the world to come closer together. Iwouldn’t trade this year for anything.”
Meanwhile, in Texas, Mike Pfafflin, a friendly German boy,was also forming independent opinions. “I suppose I should criticize theschools,” he says. “It was far too easy by our standards. But I have to admitthat I liked it enormously In Germany we do nothing but study. I think thatmaybe your schools are better training for citizenship. There ought to be somemiddle ground between the two.” He took part in many outside activities,including the dramatic group.
Mike picked up a favorite adjective of American youth;southern fried chicken was “fabulous,” When expressing a regional point ofview, he used the phrase “we Texans.” Summing up his year, he says withfeeling, “America is a second home for me from now on. I will love it the restof my life.”
This exciting exchange program was government sponsored atfirst; now it is in the hands of private agencies, including the American FieldService and the International Christian Youth Exchange. Screening committeesmake a careful check on exchange students and host homes. To qualify, studentsmust be intelligent, adaptable, outgoing-potential leaders. Each student ismatched, as closely as possible, with a young person in another country whosefamily has the same economic, cultural, and religious background.
After their years abroad, all students gather to discusswho, they observed. For visiting students to accept and approve of all they sawwould be a defeat for the exchange program. They are supposed to observeevaluate, and come to fair conclusions. Nearly all who visited the UnitedStates agreed that they had gained faith in American ideals and deep respectfor the U.S brand of democracy. All had made friendship that they were surewould last a life-time. Almost all were struck by the freedom demitted Americanyouth. Many were critical, though, of the indifference to study in Americanschools, and of Americans’ lack of knowledge about other countries.
The opinions of Americans abroad were just as vigorous. AU.S. girl in Vienna: “At home, all we talk about is dating, movies, andclothes. Here we talk about religion, philosophy, and political problems. I amgoing to miss that.”
A U.S boy in Sweden: “I learned to sit at home, read a goodbook, and gain some knowledge. It I told them this back home, they would thinkI was a square.”
An American girl in Stuttgart, however, was very criticalof the German school. “Over here the teacher is king, and you are somewhere farbelow. Instead of being friend and counselor, as in America the teacher isregarded as a foe—and behaves like it too!”
It costs a sponsoring group about a thousand dollars togive an exchange student a year in the United States. Transportation is themajor expense, for bed, board, and pocket money are provided by volunteerfamilies. There is also a small amount of federal support for the program.
For some time now, attempts have been made to includestudents from iron curtain countries. But so far the Communists have notallowed their young people to take part in this program which could open theireyes to a different world.
In Europe, however, about ten students apply for everyplace available, in Japan, the ratio is fifty to one. The student exchangeprogram is helping these eager younger citizens of tomorrow learn a lot aboutthe world today.
1. Exchange studentsare generally placed in homes that are ______.
A. very similar to their own homes
B. typical of homes in the land they are visiting
C. as different from their own home as is possible
D. None of the above
2. The greatest valueof the program is that each visiting student ______.
A. has a chance to travel in foreign countries
B. shares what he learned with others
C. learns a new language
D. gains a new understanding of world problems
3. Fred Herschbach andMike Pfafflin agreed that ______.
A. Americans are friendlier than Germans
B. German food is more monotonous than American foods
C. German schools are harder than American schools
D. the teacher in German is king
4. The major expensethat a group sponsoring an exchange student must meet is ______.
A. bed and board
B. pocket money and incidentals
D. transportation, bed board and pocket money
5. It is reasonable tosuppose that the author wishes that ______.
A. American schools provided fewer outside activities
B. more money were available to finance the exchangeprogram
C. the program were government sponsored
D. visiting foreign students will completely accept theculture of America
1. A 句意：交换学生通常被安置在与自己家庭情况相似的外国家庭中。文章第十一段最后一句提到“Each student is matched, as closely as possible, with ayoung person in another country whose family has the same economic, cultural,and religious background.”意思是每个同学与和自己家庭文化背景最相近的外国同学配对，然后互换家庭，所以选A。
2. D 句意：交换项目的最大价值在于每个交换生对世界问题有了新的认识。第十二段第三句提到“They are supposed to observe evaluate, and come to fairconclusions.”意思是学生应该通过交换项目学会自己观察、评价国外遇到的现象并得出自己对其的看法和结论，故选D。
3. C 句意：Fred Herschbach和MikePfafflin一致认为，德国学校比美国学校更为严格。第五段第二句指出“School was totally different from what he had expected—muchmore formal, much harder.”可以得出Fred认为德国学校更正式和严格，第九段第二句中，Mike评论“It was far too easy by our standards”，意思是按照德国的标准来讲，美国的学校太宽松了。因此答案为C。
4. C 句意：进行交换生项目的组织必须为每位交换生提供的主要开支是交通费用。倒数第三段第二、三句指出，这些组织需要支付的主要开支为交通费，食宿和零用钱由各家庭志愿提供，故选C。
5. B 句意：以下说法比较合理的一项是，作者希望交换项目可以得到更多资金支持。倒数第三段中，作者指出，负责交换项目的组织需要为每位学生提供一千美元的资金支持，食宿费由各家庭支付，政府只提供一少部分资金支持，而这导致最后一段中描述的很多学生争抢一个交换名额的情况，由此可以推断，作者希望能有更多的资金支持交换项目，从而使更年轻人从项目中受益。
“How many copies do you want printed, Mr. Greeley?”
“Five thousand!” The answer was snapped back withouthesitation.
“But, sir,” the press foreman protested, “we havesubscriptions for only five hundred newspapers.”
“We’ll sell them or give them away.”
The presses started rolling, sending a thundering noise outover the sleeping streets of New York City. The New York Tribune wasborn.
The newspaper’s founder, owner, and editor, Horace Greeley,anxiously snatched the first copy as it came sliding off the press. This washis dream of many years that he held in his hand. It was as precious as achild. Its birth was the result of years of poverty, hard work, anddisappointments.
Hard luck and misfortune had followed Horace all his life.He was born of poor parents on February 3, 1811, on a small farm in NewHampshire. During his early childhood, the Greeley family rarely had enough toeat. They moved from one farm to another because they could not pay theirdebts. Young Horace’s only boyhood fun was reading—when he could snatch a fewmoments during a long working day.
“The printed word always fascinated Horace. When he wasonly ten years old, he applied for a job as an apprentice in a printing shop.But he didn’t get the job because he was too young.
Four years later, Horace walked eleven miles to EastPoultney in Vermont to answer an ad. A paper called the Northern Spectatorhad a job for a boy. The editor asked him why he wanted to boa printer, Horacespoke up boldly: “Because, sir, I want to learn all I can about newspapers.”
The editor looked at the oddly dressed boy. Finally hesaid, “You’ve got the job, son.”
For the first six months, room and board would be the onlypay for his work. After that, he would get room and board and forty dollars ayear.
Horace hurried home to shout the good news to his family.When he got there, he learned that his family was about to move again—this timeto Pennsylvania. Horace decided to stay and work. Mrs. Greeley hated leavingher son behind, but gave her consent. Twice during his apprenticeship Horacewalked six hundred miles to visit his family. Each time, he took all the moneyhe had saved and gave it to his father.
The Spectator failed after Horace had spent fouryears working for it. He joined his family in Erie, Pennsylvania, and got a jobon the Erie Gazette. Half the money he earned he gave to his family. Theother half he saved to go to New York.
When he was twenty, Horace arrived in New York with tendollars in his pocket. He was turned down twice when he asked for a job.Finally he became a typesetter for John T West’s Printery. The only reason Horacegot the job was that it was so difficult other printers wouldn’t take it. Hisjob was to set a very small edition of the Bible. Horace almost ruined his eyesat that job.
As young Greeley’s skill grew, better jobs came his way. Hecould have bought better clothes and moved out of his dingy room. But he wasused to being poor, and his habits did not change He spent practically nothingon himself. Even after his Tribune became a success, he lived as if hehadn’t enough money for his next meal.
The Tribune grew and thrived. It was unlike anynewspaper ever printed before in the United States. Greeley started a new typeof journalism. His news stories were truthful and accurate His editorialsattacked as well as praised. Many people disagreed with what he wrote, butstill they read it. The Tribune became America’s first nationwidenewspaper. It was read as eagerly in the Midwest and Far West as it was in theEast. Greeley’s thundering editorials became the most powerful voice in theland.
Greeley and his Tribune fought for many causes. Hewas the first to come out for the right of women to vote. His Tribunewas the leader in demanding protection for homesteads in the West. He arousedthe north in the fight against slavery. During a depression in the East, joblessmen asked what they could do to support themselves. Said Greeley: “Go West,young man, go West!”
As the Tribune gained more power, Greeley becamemore interested in politics He led in forming and naming the Republican Party.He, more than any other man, was responsible for Abraham Lincoln’s being namedto run for President.
Horace Greeley was first of all a successful newspaperman.He was also a powerful political leader. But he was not a popular man. In 1872he ran for President against Ulysses S Grant. Grant was re-elected by anoverwhelming margin.
Greeley was then in deep mourning over the recent death ofhis wife. He was heart-broken over losing the election. He never recovered fromthe double blow only weeks after his defeat, he died in New York City. Hisbeloved Tribune lived on after him as the monument he wanted. Justbefore died, he wrote:
“I cherish the hope that the journal I projected andestablished will live and flourish long after I shall have mouldered intoforgotten dust, and that the stone that covers my ashes may bear to future eyesthe still intelligible inscription, Founder of the New York Tribune.”
6. Horace gladlyaccepted his first job ______.
A. because of the kind of work it was
B. because of the high salary offered
C. because of the location of the office
D. became he couldn’t find any other job
7. When Horace foundedthe Tribune he was ______.
A. already a rich and famous newspaperman
B. poor, but skilled in newspaper work
C. poor, but eager to learn newspaper work
D. rich and skilled in newspaper work
8. The Tribune wasdifferent from all other American papers because it was ______.
A. available by subscription only
B. printed in New York city
C. distributed throughout the nation
D. it offered the editor’s personal opinions only
9. Before the Tribunewas founded, news reporting was ______.
A. honest but uninteresting
B. distorted or dishonest
C. almost unknown
D. interesting but distorted
10. Greeley probablyfelt that his greatest accomplishment was ______.
A. rising from poverty to wealth
B. becoming a popular political leader
C. founding the New York Tribune
D. All of the above
6. A 句意：Horace很高兴地接受第一份工作的原因是这正是他想要的工作。文章第九段最后一句，当Horace被问及为什么想做这份工作时，他回答“Iwant to learn all I can about newspapers”，说明这份工作正是他想要的，故选A。文章第十一段说明这份工作开始仅提供食宿，排除B。第十二段中提到Horace的家要搬到Pennsylvania，而这份工作是在Vermont（第九段第一句），有600英里之远，排除C项。D项在文中没有提到。
7. D 句意：Horace创办《论坛报》的时候已经很富有，并且熟悉报纸行业的各项技能。文章第十五段开头提到，随着Greeley的技艺越来越好，他开始有好的工作机会，能够购置好的衣服并搬出昏暗的房子，由此可以得出Greeley当时技能纯熟，也很富有，排除B，C项，D项符合原文意思。Greeley变得出名发生在其创办《论坛报》之后，A项错误。
8. C 句意：《论坛报》同美国其他报纸的不同之处在于它在全国范围内发行。倒数第六段第二句开始描述了《论坛报》与美国其他报纸的不同之处。倒数第三句“The Tribune became America’s first nationwidenewspaper.”，说明《论坛报》是第一份全国性的报纸，即当时唯一在全国发行的报纸，故选C。
9. B 句意：《论坛报》成立之前，新闻报道是歪曲的或者不真实的。倒数第六段第三、四“Greeley started a new type of journalism. His news storieswere truthful and accurate”，即Greeley开创了新的报道方式，他的新闻故事真实而准确。由此可以得出，这之前的报道不真实，选B。
10. C 句意：Greeley可能认为他最大的成就是建立了《论坛报》。文章第六段第二、三句“This was his dream of many years ... result ofyears of poverty, hard work, and disappointments.”说明了《论坛报》对Greeley的重要性，最后一段Greeley在死前写的一段话，说明自己希望在死后《论坛报》能够更好，因此最可能是他眼中自己最大的成就。
Section 2 Answeringquestions (20’)
Directions: Read the following passages and then answer IN COMPLETESENTENCES the questions which follow each passage. Use only information fromthe passage you have just read and write your answer in the corresponding spacein your answer sheet.
At seven o’clock each morning a bell sounds in the redbrick buildings on the steep bank of the Hudson River at Ossining, New York. Asit rings, an entire, separate town of some 2300 persons comes to life. It isthe prison town of Sing Sing, a world of men who are confined but also living,working, playing—and hoping Sing Sing is a town that lives on hope.
The seven o’clock bell is the signal for Sing Sing’s 1748inmates and 514 man staff to begin another round of duties. The prisoners rise,wash and dress. They make up their narrow beds army-style and make certain thatthe objects on their dressers are regulation neat. By 7:15, when guards comealong the runways to unlock the individual cells, the men are ready. They fileslowly to the mess hall, falling into step along the way with friends andacquaintances. Each man grabs a tray and gets a breakfast of oatmeal with milkand sugar, bread, and coffee; he takes his seat at one of the long rows ofeating benches, places the tray before him, and begins his breakfast So startsthe day in Sing Sing.
Breakfast over, the men file from the mess hall and underthe watchful eyes of guards, drop their eating utensils into boxes provided atthe doors. At five minutes to eight they go outside in a long, chattering linedown to the cluster of prison workshops.
The prison has a dual function: it has its own permanentpopulation, but it also serves as a receiving station for the great flow ofprisoners from New York City. Here they come to be examined, screened, andeventually transferred to upstate institutions.
For the first two weeks, the new arrival is put through aseries of mental, physical, and psychological examinations and given courses toprepare him for prison life. In each batch of new prisoners there are hardenedmen for whom prison can serve just one function—to remove them from society andkeep them from doing further harm. But in each batch there are also those whocan be helped and encouraged and turned into law-abiding citizens. It is towardthese that most of the effort at the prison is directed.
Sing Sing is a school, hospital, and factory as well as aprison if initial tests show that a man is illiterate, he goes to the prisonschool to receive the equivalent of an eighth-grade education if he needsmedical treatment, he is sent to the prison hospital. If he shows some specialaptitude, or appears capable of learning a trade, he is assigned to a regularjob in one of the shops.
The shops cover a wide range of activities. A man may beassigned to the print shop to learn the printer’s trade, or to the neighboringmachine shop, where a twelve-month course turns raw trainees into good automechanics, Many of the prisons “graduates,” incapable of earning an honestliving before now support themselves on the good wages they make as skilledworkers.
The shops are busy until 11:40 a.m., when the men straggleup the slope to the mess hall for dinner. In the afternoons some men go back tothe shops. Others may meet and talk with relatives in the prison’s visitingroom. Athletes may spend hours running and drilling on the basketball court.
The day’s work ends at 3:30, giving the men more than anhour of relative freedom before the supper whistle sounds at 4:40. With theevening meal, the day ends. The men go directly from the mess hall to theircell blocks and are locked in for the night. Each cell is equipped with a setof radio headphones tuned into programs sent over the prison circuit. Aprisoner may read one of the well-thumbed volumes from the prison library,which circulates about 36,000 volumes a year, or he may work, as many inmatesdo, on a correspondence course to improve his chances of making a living whenhe gets out Lights go out at ten o’clock. This routine does not vary greatlyfor any of Sing Sing’s inmates.
“We run the prison like a city of eighteen hundred people,only of course with a lot more police,” says Warden Wilfred I. Denno. “Anythingyou couldn’t do on the outside, you can’t do on the inside. You can’t fight,you can’t abuse an officer, you can’t steal. If you do, you’ll be punished. Wehold court twice a week and try to make the punishment fit the crime.”
This code is impressed on the prisoner from the start, itunderlies his every move on every day he spends in Sing Sing. He is faced withclear alternatives. If he misbehaves, he received punishment in the form ofrestricted privileges or even strict confinement. In one typical week therewere only five infractions of prison rules, most of which were minor. One manwas reprimanded for not reposing to work on time, one for creating adisturbance by trying to shove his way into the mess-hall line ahead of thosealready waiting. In three weeks of reports there was only one case of serious,outright rebellion against prison discipline. An inmate who was to be releasedin a month suddenly refused to follow an officer’s order. He was promptlyplaced in segregation for the rest of his prison term. There are no dark holesor bread-and-water routines at Sing Sing—in segregation, the cells and the foodare the same as in the rest of the prison. But a man’s movements arerestricted. He is kept locked in his ceil, isolated from his fellows, andcannot go to the movies or to the commissary.
If a prisoner behaves, he accumulates “good time,” animportant source of hope for most prisoners. Good time is the time by which, throughhis own good conduct, a prisoner may reduce his minimum sentence. Good behaviorearns a man ten days good time a month. So a prisoner facing athree-to-six-year term would be able to appear before the parole board forpossible release at the end of two years.
Release then is not automatic. The parole board mustconsider many other factors. All that good time does is to guarantee a prisonerthe right to appear before the parole board earlier than he otherwise could.
The real importance of good time is that it gives aprisoner the one hope that stirs all Sing Sing—the hope of earlier parole, thehope of freedom. A prisoner has to hope, “Once you take away a man’s hope, youmake a bitter man.” Warden Denno says. That is the problem of Sing Sing: topunish and yet avoid the deprivation of hope that can make an imprisoned manmore desperate, mere vengeful, and a greater menace to society.
1. What is Sing Sing?Describe in your own words the functions of Sing Sing.
2. Why would WardenWilfred L Denno compare running the prison to running a city?
3. What does “good time”refer to? Does it have any importance to the prisoners?
1. Sing Sing, located on the bank of the HudsonRiver at Ossining, New York, is a prison town where live 1748 inmates and 514man staff. It was different from normal prisons in that prisoners here, whileconfined, still live a normal life of work and entertainment. Sing Sing functions asa town holding a permanent population as well as a station to receive, examine,educate and transform prisoners form New York City.
（文章第一段指出了Sing Sing的地理位置和性质，“on the steep bank of the Hudson River atOssining, New York”，“It is the prison town of Sing Sing”，第二段第一句说明了这里的居民是谁。第四段说明了Sing Sing的功能，一是作为一个监狱接受并改造罪犯，二是作为一个行政镇存在，罪犯和治安人员是它的公民。）
2. Because Sing Sing is different from otherprisons. It is both a town and a prison. Prisoners here are considered not onlyas prisoners, but also as citizens in this town. So the officers have to run itin a similar way as running a city.
3. Good time is the time by which, through hisown good conduct, a prisoner may reduce his minimum sentence. Yes, it does.Because good time may shorten the sentence period of a prisoner, offeringprisoners hope of freedom and the opportunities to be released earlier.
To all the world, nothing seems more completely Americanthan the cowboy. Yet the truth is that the cowboy’s horse, clothes, and tradeare all part of the rich heritage contributed by Mexico to her northernneighbor.
Even the word cowboy is a translation of the Mexicanterm vaquero. The word cowboy was unknown to the Americansettlers who first headed west to Texas in the 1820’s. These people thought ofthemselves as farmers. In fact, the only cattle most of them brought were a cowor two for milk and a yoke of oxen to draw their plows. It was their Mexicanneighbors—the Tejanos whose herds had roamed the open ranges since theearly 1700’s—who introduced them to cattle raising, taunt them to use thelariat, the branding iron, and the homed saddle, andshowed them how to break the wild mustangs and round up the free-ranginglonghorns. So well did the new Texans take to Tejano ways that soon youspoke fighin’ words if you referred to them as anything as ordinary as mere“farmers.” They had been changed into saddle-proudranchers.
Later, as the cattle industry spread all over the West, itsMexican origins were largely forgotten. But even today the language of therangeland clearly shows how great were the cowboy’s borrowings. Corral, pinto, palomino, mesquite, bronco, rodeo, mesa, canyon,arroyo, loco, plaza, fiesta, pronto—by the hundreds Mexican words slipped intoEnglish with only a change in accent. Borrowed “by ear,” other words underwentweird alterations. From sabe came savvy, jaquima turnedinto hackamore, chaparajos was shortened to chaps, estampidawas converted into stampede, vamos emerged as vamoose, andthe juzgado gave birth to hoosegow. Even the famed ten-gallonhat, got its name not from some Texan’s tall tale but from a Mexican song abouta gaily decorated hat, or sombrero galoneado.
In countless other ways the people of the United States areindebted to the Mexicans who once lived in the old Southwest. There were onlyseventy-five thousands of them when Mexico ceded the region to the UnitedStates, and these were scattered from the Gulf Coast in the east to the shoresof the Pacific in the west. They had lived in the borderlands since 1598, morethan twenty years before the Pilgrims sailed for the New World. In the courseof more than 250 years they had left their mark on the land. Many of thewestern states in the United States still bear the lovely lyrical names theMexican settlers first wrote upon their maps. So do countless rivers andmountains, and thousands of cities and towns—from Corpus Christi in Texas toall the Sans and Santas along the Pacific shore.
Through trial and error, the rugged Mexicans had learned tosurvive and prosper in the dry, half-desert land, When English-speaking peoplepoured into the region, the Spanish-speaking people shared their knowledge withthe new settlers, making things much easier for them Settlers in other parts ofthe United States did not have this advantage.
In all the rest of the country, pioneers had to break theirown trails. But those who headed west in gold rush days could follow the SantaFe Trail from the Missouri to the Rockies. In the old settlements of NewMexico, the wagon trams could rest their oxen and replenish their suppliesbefore moving on down the Old Spanish Trail on the Tucson-Yuma route.
In the 1850’s, army engineers were sent west to survey therailroad routes that would link East with West. The northern parties had tofind their own way through vast stretches of little-explored territory but inthe Southwest the surveyors merely remapped the trails that had been packedhard over the years by Mexican mule trains. Two major railroads—the SouthernPacific and the Santa Fe—and many main highways were built along the routesmade by the early Spanish settlers when they first spread out into the newland.
Early migrants from the East thought of the Southwest as agreat desert, a land that had to be passed through, but was hardly to besettled upon. However, they changed their minds when they saw the rich greenfields along the Rio Grande, fields that had been irrigated since the early1600’s. In time the newcomers were able to turn even desert into some of themost fertile farmland in all the nation.
Water laws gave the new settlers some trouble at first.They tried to use a system under which the landowners along the banks of astream controlled its waters. This system worked well in the water-rich East,but in the dry lands of the Southwest it gave the lucky more water than theyneeded, while others on higher ground got none at all. In time all the westernstates had to switch over to the Mexican way—sharing water rights among all theowners whose land could be irrigated.
Western sheep farmers, too, owe a great debt to theirforerunners. For the small flocks that the early Mexican settlers had broughtto Santa Fe had multiplied into large herds by the time the United States tookover the Southwest. New Mexico supplied sheep to ranges all over the country.With the sheep went pastores, who still form a large percentage of theherdsmen in North America. Until the recent introduction of sheep clippingmachines, sheepshearing was to a large extent a Mexican skill for which sheep ranchersin the States would bid eagerly.
Mexicans have played an important part not only in cattleand sheep farming, but in mining as well. It was a Mexican who discovered thegreat Santa Rita copper deposit in New Mexico. Today, miners of Mexican descentstill form a major part of the work force in most of the copper mines of theSouthwest. In industry, farming, and countless other fields, the United Statesowes a great deal to her neighbor.
4. What is the purpose of this article, todemonstrate what Mexicans gave to the United States or how languages change andgrow? Why?
5. What does the factthat Easterners borrowed words such as corral, bronco, and canyon suggest?
4. The purpose of this article is to demonstratewhat Mexicans gave to the United States. In the first three paragraphs, theauthor demonstrated how American words are influenced by the Mexicans, but hispoint is to describe that Mexicans are of great importance in American culture.Moreover, in the following paragraphs, the author showed us how the Mexicanshelp the Americans in the difficult times and how intelligent the Mexicans werewhen they cultivating a new land. These all add up to the fact that the purposeof this article is not about language.
5. It suggests that in termsof language, the people of the United States are indebted to the Mexicans whoonce lived in the old Southwest.
（这些词出现在文章第三段第三句。文章第四段开头说“In countless other ways the people of the United States are indebted tothe Mexicans who once lived in the old Southwest.”说明上段中提到美国对墨西哥词语借鉴的目的是说明美国在文化方面借鉴了墨西哥语。）
III. Writing (30’)
Write an essay of about400 words to comment on the very short story below:
Failed SAT. Lostscholarship. Invented rocket.
GPA Means Not Everything
Maybe we havealready used to hearing such a comment: that young guy does very well on hisstudy and achieves a high GPA, so he must be something in the future. Peoplealways judge a person’s future simply by his GPA without stopping to thinkwhether this judgment make any sense. There is one short story, saying, failedSAT, lost scholarship, invented rocket. This story raises us a question: doeshigh GPA really mean great achievements? From my point of view, I don’t thinkthat GPA can mean everything, instead, one’s achievements are determined bycreative minds, hard work and opportunities.
To begin with,creative minds are sources of new ideas and inventions. One with creative mindsusually shows great interests in all things and draws inspiration from theworld around him. Nowadays, too many people concentrate on exams rather thanstudy and they study hard simply to get high scores and scholarship. Consideringthis condition, I am not surprised that many high-GPA-students can neither findjobs nor make academic achievements. Only those who really love to learn can befully-devoted and have creative minds, like Bill Gates, like Albert Einstein.
Secondly, weshould attach significant importance to hard work, for action speaks louderthan words. Having creative minds is just a beginning and far from enough—wehave to work hard to test new ideas and put them into practice. In my childhoodI used to read many fairy tales, in which only those who are diligent enoughcan live a happy life; on the contrary, those who are too lazy to do any workwill suffer hunger and homelessness in the end. Fairy tales as they are, theyalso teach us something: hard work is the only way to bring dreams to reality. Creativeminds produce various dreams, but only hard work can prevent these beautifuldreams to fragile bubbles.
At last,opportunity is of the same importance in getting achievements. In history therewere so many people who endeavored all his life but could not attain success,like Van Gogh. Van Gogh is not so unfortunate because his talent was finallyadmired after his death. However, for those who worked hard but died inobscurity, we can do nothing but heave a sigh.
In conclusion, aperson’s achievements is not determined by high GPA but by creative minds, hardwork and opportunities. If a creative and hard-working person can grasp goodopportunities, he is likely to achieve higher goals even without a high GPA.
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