长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语历年考研真题汇编

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摘要 : 目录封面内容简介目录2015年长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语考研真题2016年长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语考研真题2017年长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语考研真题2018年长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语考研真题2019年长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语考研真题内容简介本...
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2015年长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语考研真题
2016年长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语考研真题
2017年长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语考研真题
2018年长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语考研真题
2019年长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语考研真题
内容简介 本书收录了长沙理工大学外国语学院“基础英语”历年考研真题(注意:部分年份的科目代码会有变动,各年真题的科目代码也可能不一样,具体参见本书目录)。所有试题均没有提供答案。
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2015年长沙理工大学外国语学院708基础英语考研真题
Ⅰ. GRAMMAR(20 points, 1 point each)
Direction: Inthis section, there are 20 sentences each with one word or phrase missing. Choose one of the four choices marked A, B, C, and D that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening it.

1. As far as we know, in this matter Jim seems _____.
A. to be in noway to blame
B. to in no way beto be blamed
C. to be to blame in no way
D. to be blamed in no way
2. _____, he might haveretired before the end.
A. Didn’t he enjoy the concert
B. Has he not enjoyed the concert
C. Were he not enjoy the concert
D. Had he not enjoyed the concert
3. I don’t see how youcan stop your daughter _____, she is lawfully old enough to get married.
A. once
B. thus
C. yet
D. since
4. A long line oftraffic _____ at the level crossing until the train had passed.
A. would have waited
B. had to wait
C. must have waited
D. should have waited
5. The developing countries are the richlymineralized districts in the world _____ the developed countries are thedistricts which are short of minerals.
A anyway
B. nevertheless
C. while
D. instead
6. Jane rented _____ novelsfrom the circulating library yesterday afternoon.
A. two interesting American
B. two American interesting
C. interesting two American
D. American two interesting
7. The manager _____ hissuitcase in which there is plenty of cash yet, for he is not sure where he leftit behind.
A. had not found
B. has not found
C. did not find
D. cannot find
8. The minister didn’tshow any interest in the democratic reforms _____.
A. all in all
B. after all
C. not at all
D. at all
9. I regret _____ apresent to my friend when he got married last month.
A. to have not made
B. not making
C. not having made
D. having not made
10. I haven’t seen her _____.
A. since long
B. long since
C. long ago
D. long before
11. Why _____ this way?_____ to meet him?
A. are you walking / Do you want
B. do you walk / Do you want
C. do you walk. / Are you wanting
D. are you walking / Did you want
12. Art criticsinsisted he _____ an illustrator rather than an artist.
A. be
B. would be
C. should be
D. was
13. “Did the audienceparticipate in the play?”
“Yes, those actors _____ to involve the audience.”
A. whom it was the function
B. of whom the function was
C. whose function it was
D. whose were the function
14. “Will a bus stophere soon?” “No, _____.”

A. ten minutes ago one just went by
B. one just went by ten minutes ago
C. ten minutes ago just one went by
D. just one went by ten minutes ago
15. It was ______ coldwinter night. _____ moon was shining brightly across ____night sky.
A. the/The/the
B. a / The / the
C. a/The/a
D. a/A/the
16. The man under a bigtree over there is _____.
A. no other but
B. none other than
C. none other but
D. no one than
17. He did not turn up.No more _____.
A. did his brother
B. his brother did
C. did not his brother
D. his brother did too
18. The millions of calculations involved, hadthey been done by hand, _____ all practical value by the time they werefinished.
A. could lose
B. would have lost
C. might lose
D. ought to have lost
19. The lady over thereis _____.
A. Jane and Mary mother
B. Jane and Mary’s mother
C. Jane’s and Mary’s mother
D. Jane’s and Mary mother
20. Not even a word_____ concerning these important matters.
A. he mentioned
B. he mentions
C. did he mention
D. he does mention
Ⅱ. VOCABULARY (30 points, 1 point each)
Section A
Directions: In this section, there are ten sentences eachwith one word or phrase underlined Choose one of the four choices marked A, B,C, and D that best keeps the meaning of the sentence. Then mark thecorresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening it.

1. Intermittent showers were forecast for the day.
A. Heavy
B. Recurrent
C. All-day
D. Instantaneous
2. The saucy child protruded his tongue.
A. propelled
B. showed
C. projected
D. hurt
3. Mary’s impromptu speech given at thestate competition won her first prize.
A. extemporaneous
B. well-prepared
C. eloquent
D. carefully-designed
4. His loud voice drowned what the girl wastrying to tell us.
A. undulated
B. surprised
C. inundated
D. overturned
5. We adorned our room with new rugs, lampsand pictures.
A. embroidered
B. embellished
C. furnished
D. addressed
6. I amglad to hear about the young man’s good convalescence.
A. personality
B. response
C. temper
D. recovery
7. When the woman assembles and brings all thesebooks, she musters them.
A. barters
B. takes
C. gathers
D. counts
8. Itis now generally assumed that the planets were formed by the accretionof gas and dust in a cosmic cloud.
A. separation
B. motion
C. progression
D. accumulation
9. Ghost stories are vestiges of awidespread belief in ghosts.
A. legends
B. remnants
C. residences
D. reflections
10. Theprocess of respiration consists of two independent actions, inhaling and exhaling.
A. speaking
B. marketing
C. expanding
D. breathing

Section B
Directions: In this section, there are 20 sentences each withone word or phrase missing. Choose one of the four choices marked A, B, C, andD that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening it.

11. There was a nobility,about this simple-minded person which was _____.
A. most engaged
B. to be most engaging
C. the most engaging
D. most engaging
12. Thewriter was not used to speaking in public, but when the opportunity presented itself,he rose to the _____.
A. chance
B. event
C. occasion
D. circumstance
13. Most of the author’s earlierworks were published under a _____.
A. pseudonym
B. misnomer
C. nickname
D. namesake
14. Theblack boys and girls need not have felt _____ for theirdark skin in the summer camp.
A. self-effacing
B. self-conscious
C. self-centered
D. self-evident
15. If you keep on working too hard, your healthwill _____.
A. degenerate
B. degrade
C. deteriorate
D. deform
16. Several of the advertising hoardings had been _____ by anti-racist slogans.
A. deleted
B. erased
C. mutilated
D. defaced
17. Before theconference begins, let’s take an _____ of the present situation.
A. overview
B. overall
C. overture
D. oversight
18. The dreadful scenes of the major skirmish _____ the children off their dinner.
A. took
B. put
C. sent
D. set
19. Thepurpose of the survey was to _____ the parents with the changes television has madein family life.
A. notify
B. tell
C. acquaint
D. inform
20. Theyhad not cleaned the house for weeks and the health inspector found them livingin the utmost_____.
A. contamination
B. pollution
C. decay
D. squalor
21. We must bring him_____ to cur point of view onthat subject.
A. out
B. forward
C. around
D. about
22. The students wondered why the instructor _____ in the middle of his speech.
A. broke away
B. broke in
C. broke off
D. broke out
23. TheU.N Security Council makes an attempt to adjust the _____ between Israeland Palestine.
A. problem
B. dispute
C. question
D. matter
24. Whiletyping, Helen has a habit of stopping_____ to give her long and flowinghair a smooth.
A. occasionally
B. simultaneously
C. eventually
D. promptly
25. The old lady can’t hope to _____ her cold in a few days.
A. hold back
B. get off
C. get over
D. hole up
26. The island where these rare birds nest has beendeclared a _____ area.
A. observation
B. reservation
C. preservation
D. conservation
27. I justmanaged to _____ a quick breath before I was sucked under thewater by the passing boat.
A. snatch
B. scratch
C. scrape
D. stretch
28. With prices _____ so much,it’s hard for the company to plan a budge.
A. vibrating
B. waving
C. fluctuating
D. swings
29. My house is the only brick one on the street. It _____ and you can’t miss it.
A. stands up
B. sticks out
C. looks out
D. make out
30. Someteenagers harbor a generalized resentment against society, which _____ them the rights and privileges of adults, although physically they are mature.
A. deprives
B. restricts
C. rejects
D. denies
Ⅲ. CLOZE(30points, 1 point each)
PASSAGE 1
Directions: In this section, there are 10 blanks withone word missing in each blank. Choose one of the fourchoices marked A, B, C and D thatbest completes the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSEWR SHEETby blackening it.

There’s a strange pleasure in working late. Yourcolleagues go home, and you’re alone: free to finish all those jobs you didn’tfind time for during the day and move mound the office (1)______.
But nowadays lots of people work a voluntary late (2)______ Some of them deliberately do little during the day and only get down to what they (3)______ have done when evening arrives. It’sinefficient, but it looks as if they are working hard. At times, it can become (4)______ ridiculous. We heard about a consultant who at 11 am would pretend to begoing to the men’s room. After (5)______ this to his colleagues, he would walk out ofthe building and go home -- half blind and shivering, because he’d deliberatelyleft his glasses on his desk and his jacket on the back of his chair in anattempt to (6)______people that he was still in the building.
Chief executive often mistakes such behavior for (7)______to the company, and those who finish their work on time and leave at5.30 to be with their families are often (8)______less conscientious despite working efficiently. In fact the earlyleavers, who probably get a good night’s sleep, are working moreproductively and tend not to suffer from (9)______stress levels. Working late is an occasional necessity, but the desireto stay late purely to (10)______a impression on your boss should bediscouraged.

1. A. unattended
B. unguarded
C. unhindered
D. unopposed
2. A. period
B. shift
C. time
D. hour
3. A. may
B. should
C. would
D. can’t
4. A. truly
B. sincerely
C. purely
D. fully
5. A. littering
B. informing
C. speaking
D. announcing
6. A. pretend
B. lie
C. convince
D. cheat
7. A. duty
B. loyalty
C. respect
D. faith
8. A. viewed
B. observed
C. regarded
D. considered
9. A. large
B. expensive
C. high
D. strong
10. A. make
B. put
C. get
D. have

PASSAGE 2
Directions: In this section, there are 20 blanks with oneword missing in each blank. Fill in each blank with a word that best completesthe passage, and write the word on the ANSWER SHEET.

Books are to mankind (11)______memory is to the individual. They contain the history of our race,the discoveries we have (12)______ theaccumulated knowledge and experience of ages. They picture for us the marvels andbeauties of nature, help us (13)______ our difficulties, comfort us in sorrow (14)______ in suffering, change hours of weariness(15)______ momentsof delight, store our minds with ideas, (16)______ themwith good and happy thoughts, and lift us (17)______ ofand above ourselves.
There is anoriental story of two men: one was a king. (18)______every night dreamt he was a beggar, the (19)______ wasa beggar, who every night dreamt he was a prince and lived in a palace.Imagination is sometimes more (20)______ than reality. But however this (21)______ be. When we read we may not only be the king and livein palaces, but, what is better, we may transport ourselves to mountains or theseashore, and visit the most beautiful pans or the earth. (22)______ fatigue, inconvenience, or expense.
Macaulay had wealth and fame, rank and power, and yet hetells us in his biography that he owed the happiest hours of his life (23)______ books. In a charming letter to a little girl, he says: “Thankyou for your very pretty, letter. I am always glad to make my little girlhappy, and nothing pleases me so much (24)______ to see that shelikes books, for when she is as old as I am. She will findthat they are better than all the candies and cakes, toys and plays, and sightsin the world. If anyone would make me the greatest king that ever lived on (25)______ that I should not read books, I (26)______ notbe a king. I would (27)______ be a poor man in a garret with plenty of booksthan a king who did not love (28)______.”
Books, indeed, endow us (29)______ awhole enchanted palace of thoughts. In one way they give us an even more vivididea than the actual (30)______, just as reflections are often morebeautiful than real nature.
Ⅳ. READING COMPREHENSION(30 points, 3 points each)

PASSAGE 1
Prospective teachers are urged to develop their ownpersonal philosophies of education. How you manage your classroom, the content,the method, and the values you stress will be based on your personal beliefsystem—your philosophy of education. Pre-service teachers should at least beaware of the options available when developing a preferred teachingstyle/philosophy. In teaching, one exhibits behavior that is compatible withone’s personal educational view. Instructional practices mustfit the teacher’s personality and the teacher must believe inthe effectiveness of the practices used. Since other teaching styles might bemore effective in certain situations, experienced teachers often draw fromstyles other than their preferred personal style. In fact, perhaps the bestgoal for an experienced teacher is to become a “healthyeclectic” who can comfortably use a number of teaching styles in order to meetlearners’ needs more completely.
As long as this eclectic strategy serves the instructionalpurpose well, and as long as the teacher has the ability to explain to thestudents how they can succeed under various teaching styles, the use of variousstyles can be advantageous. However, if the use of various styles is merelytrying technique after technique with no knowledge of how these techniquesrelate to teaching philosophies, the result could be said to be a state ofunhealthy eclecticism, which should be avoided.
Various state teacher certificationprograms include a course in the academic study of educationalphilosophy. When the prospective teachers enrolled in suchcourses have previously assessed behavioral emphases and preferences underlyinga philosophical position, such courses are infinitely more valuable. Whilecondensed explanations of teaching styles/philosophies run theinherent risks of oversimplification and of being too judgmental, our purposeis to provide prospective teachers with a working framework to help them avoidthe meaningless stereotypes associated with various educational philosophies.
Effective teaching is not a matter of authoritarian versusnon-authoritarian methodologies, older versus newer theories, or controlledclassrooms versus non-controlled classrooms. Rather, responsible use of anyteaching style/philosophy yields benefits for learners, whereas irresponsibleuse of any teaching style/philosophy yields the reverse.
Classroom teachers do borrow from different philosophicalsystems, primarily as a means to assure variety in methods of instruction.However, a philosophical position is actually indicated by emphases andpreferences that translate themselves into behavior. Thus it is the behavioralemphasis or preferences that should be identified to reveal the underlying setof philosophical assumptions.

1. A prospective teacher should have, his ownpersonal philosophy of education because _____.
A. a preferredteaching philosophy is necessary
B. his preferred teaching style is the most effective one
C. he should develop his own teaching style
D. his personal belief system determines his instructionalpractice
2. According to the author, which of thefollowing approaches is encouraged in a teacher-training program?
A. To introduce various teaching theories and try them outin class.
B. To help teachers master various teaching methodologies.
C. To help teachers understand the real significance behindeach teaching theory.
D. To comment on the strong points and weakness of eachteaching theory
3. In the author’sopinion, effective teaching chiefly results from _____.
A. newer teaching theories
B. teacher’s responsibility in using any teachingphilosophy
C. non-controlled classrooms
D. non-authoritarian methodology

PASSAGE 2
There are several ways to think of politeness. These mightinvolve ideas like being tactful, modest and nice to other people. In the studyof linguistic politeness, the most relevant concept is ‘face’. Your face, inpragmatics, is your public self-image. This is the emotionaland social sense of self that every person has and expects everyone else to recognize.
Politeness isshowing awareness of another personas face, if you saysomething that represents a threat toanother person’s self-image, that is called a face-threateningact. For example, if you use a direct speech act to order someone to dosomething (Give me that paper!), you are acting as if you have more social power than theother person. If you do not actually have that social power, then youare performing a face-threatening act. An indirect speechact in the form of a question (Could you pass me that paper, please?), removesthe assumption of social power. You appear to be asking about ability. This makesyour request less threatening to the other person’s sense of self. Whenever yousay something that lessens the possible threat to another’sface. It’s called a face-saving act.
You have both anegative face and a positive face. Your negative face is the need to beindependent and to have freedom from imposition. Your positive face is yourneed to be connected, to belong, to be a member of the group. Thus, a face-savingact that emphasizes a person’s negative face will show concern about imposition(I’m sorry to bother you...; I know you’re busy, but...). A face-saving act that emphasizes aperson’s positive face will show solidarity and draw attention toa common goal (Let’s do this together...; You and I have the sameproblem, so...).
Ideas about the appropriate language to markpoliteness differ substantially from one culture to the next. If you have grown.up in a culture that has directness as a valued way of showing solidarityand you use direct speech acts (Pour me some coffee) to people whose culture ismore oriented to indirectness and avoiding direct imposition, then you will beconsidered impolite. You, in turn, may think of the others as vague and unsureof what they want. In either case, it is the pragmatics that is misunderstoodand, unfortunately, much more will be communicated than is said.Understanding how people communicate is actually a process of interpreting notjust what speakers say, but what they ‘intend to mean’.

4. Which of the following is NOT an example offace-threatening act?
A. You sit there.
B. Why don’t you sit there?
C. Would you sit there?
D. You’re asked to sit there.
5. Which of the following shows concern for aperson’s negative face?
A. I’m afraid you’re late.
B. You’re late.
C. You know you’re late.
D. I sorry, to say you’re late.
6. As is discussed in the passage, Pragmaticsmainly studies _____.
A. a speaker’s face-saving apt
B. a speaker’s positive face or negative face
C. what the speaker says
D. a speaker’s implied intentions

PASSAGE 3
The most noticeable trend among today’s mediacompanies is vertical integration- an attempt to control several relatedaspects of the media business at once, each part helping theother. Besides publishing magazines and books. Time Warner, forexample, owns Home Box Office (HBO). Warner movie studios,various cable TV systems throughout the United States and CNN as well. TheJapanese company Matsushita owns MCA Records and Universal Studios andmanufactures broadcast production equipment.
To describe the financial status of today’smedia is also to talk about acquisitions. The media are buying and selling eachother in unprecedented numbers and forming media groups to position themselves in themarketplace to maintain and increase their profits. In 1986, the first time abroadcast network had been sold, two networks were sold that year - ABC and NEC.
Media acquisitions have skyrocketed since 1980 for tworeasons. The first is that most big corporations today arepublicly traded companies, which means that their stock is traded on one of thenation’s stock exchanges. This makes acquisitions relativelyeasier.
A media company that wants to buy a publicly owned companycan buy that company’s stock when the stock becomes available. Theopen availability of stock in these companies means that anybody with enoughmoney can invest in the American media industries, which is exactly how RupertMurdoch joined the media business.
The second reason for the increase in media alliances isthat beginning in 1980, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) graduallyderegulated the broadcast media. Before 1980, for example, the FCC allowed onecompany to own only five TV stations, five AM radio stations, and five FM radiostations; companies also were required to hold onto a station forthree years before the station could be sold. The post-1980 FCC eliminated thethree-year rule and raised the number of broadcast holdings allowed for oneowner. This trend of media acquisitions is continuing throughout the 1990s, aschanging technology expands the market for media products.
The issue of media ownership is important. If only a fewcorporations direct the media industries in this country, theoutlets for differing political viewpoints and innovative ideas could belimited.

7. Which of the following is tree of the media?
A. They used to sell and buy each other in great numbers.
B. They are trading each other in greater numbers today.
C. They used to be controlled by two networks—ABC and NBC.
D. They have stopped the trend of acquisitions in the1990s.
8. According to the passage, what makesacquisitions easier?
A. The changing technology employed by the media.
B. The media’s increasing profits in the marketplace.
C. The ever tougher regulations of the FCC on the mediasince 1980.
D. The availability of the media’s stocks on stockexchanges.
9. What is the FCC’s new policyregarding media alliances?
A. It allows companies to sell their stocks publicly.
B. It doesn’t allow companies to sell their stockspublicly.
C. It permits one company to own more media businesses atthe same time.
D. It does not impose any restrictions on the number ofcompanies one can buy.
10. The issue of media ownership is importantbecause _____.
A. it affects the amount of money the stockholders willmake
B. it decides whether we can have different aspects of themedia
C. it concerns the channels through which to expressopinions
D. it means that more and more people will hold onto only afew stations
Ⅴ. PARAPHRASING (20points, 4 points each)
Explain the fiveunderlined sentences in your own words, and give examples to illustrate yourexplanation if necessary. Write your answers on THE ANSWER SHEET.

Culture, in anthropology, the patterns of behavior and thinkingthat people living in social groups learn, create, andshare. (1) Culture distinguishes one human group from others. It alsodistinguishes humans from other animals. A people’s culture includes theirbeliefs, rules of behavior, language, rituals, art, technology, styles ofdress, ways of producing and cooking food, religion, and political and economicsystems.
Culture is the most important concept in anthropology (thestudy of all aspects of human life, past and present). Anthropologists commonlyuse the term culture to refer to a society, or group in which many or allpeople live and think in the same ways. Likewise, any group of people who sharea common culture—and in particular, common rules of behavior and a basic formof social organization—constitutes a society. (2) Thus, the terms cultureand society are somewhat interchangeable. However, while manyanimals live in societies, such as herds of elk or packs of wild dogs, onlyhumans have culture.
Culture has several distinguishing characteristics. One ofthem is that culture is based on symbols—abstract ways of referring to andunderstanding ideas, objects, feelings, or behaviors—and the ability tocommunicate with symbols using language. People have culture primarily becausethey can communicate with and understand symbols. (3) Symbols allow peopletodevelop complex thoughts and to exchange those thoughtswith others. Language and other formsof symbolic communication, such as art, enable people to create, explain, andrecord new ideas and information.
(4) A symbol has either an indirect connection or noconnection at all with the object, idea feeling, or behavior to which itrefers. For instance, most people in the United States find some meaning inthe combination of the colors red, white, and blue. But those colors themselveshave nothing to do with for instance, the land, the people callthe United States,the concept of patriotism, or theU.S. national anthem, The Star Spangled Banner.
To convey new ideas, people constantly inventnew symbols, such as for mathematical formulas. In addition, people may use onesymbol, such as a single word, to represent many different ideas, feelings, orvalues. Thus, symbols provide a flexible way for people to communicate even verycomplex thoughts with each other.
For example, only through symbols can architects,engineers, and construction workers communicate the information necessary toconstruct a skyscraper or bridge. (5) People have the capacity at birth toconstruct, understand, and communicate through symbols, primarily by using language. Research has shown, for example, thatinfants have a basic structure of language—sort ofuniversal grammar—built into their minds. Infants are thuspredisposed to learn the languages spoken by the people aroundthem.
Ⅵ. WRITING (20 points)
In today’sincreasingly technological society, many students think that college courses inthe liberal arts (art, music, philosophy, literature) should be cancelled,because they do not contribute much to their career preparation.
Write on your ANSWERSHEET a composition of about 200 words to respond to the following statement.Use specific details to support your argument.

Do you agree or disagreewith the above statement?

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