同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试历年真题及详解(2006~2012)

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摘要 : 目录封面内容简介目录2006年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解2007年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解2008年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解2009年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解2010年同等学力人员申...
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2006年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解
2007年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解
2008年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解
2009年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解
2010年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解
2011年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解
2012年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解
内容简介 本书是专门为提高考生参加同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试成绩而编写的复习资料。其内容包括7套真题(2006~2012),每套试题均给出参考答案及详解。历年真题从文章导读、答案详解、全文翻译、审题构思、范文点评等多角度予以分析,为考生分析了解题技巧,指明了解题思路。
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2006年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题及详解

Paper One 试卷一
(90 minutes)
Part Ⅰ DialogueCommunication (10 minutes,10 points)
Section A DialogueCompletion
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short incomplete dialoguesbetween two speakers, each followed by 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choosethe answer that best suits the situation to complete the dialogue by markingthe corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on yourmachine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
1. A: Doyou do exercise every day?
B: _____
A. No, itdepends on what kind of exercise.
B. No, I go tohealth club most of the time.
C. Yes, usuallyevery other day.
D. Yes, rain orshine.
【答案】D查看答案
【解析】对话里A问B“你每天都锻炼吗?”,回答要针对是否每天锻炼作出肯定或否定回答,选项D“是的,不管刮风下雨”,与问题相关且回答前后一致,因此正确答案为D项。选项A和B与问题无关,C项与问题相矛盾。

2. A: Thatwas a delicious meal, Mrs. Barr. Thank you very much.
B: _____
A. You’rewelcome.
B. Never mind.
C. It doesn’tmatter
D. It’s just OK.
【答案】A查看答案
【解析】对话里A对B说“Barr夫人,您的这顿饭好吃极了,非常感谢你。”B项的回答应该是对A项的这番感谢作出的回应,只有A项是对感谢的回答,B、C、D项都是对别人的抱歉作出的回答,所以A项为正确选项。

3. A: Ihave a last favor to ask of you. Could you drive my daughter to the airport?
B: _____
A. Shall I getthe ticket for her?
B. Yeah, I likethat.
C. You bet Iwill.
D. Sure, it’d bea pleasure.
【答案】D查看答案
【解析】对话里A问B“我最后再求您帮个忙。您能开车帮我把女儿送到飞机场吗?”B的回答应该是对这一请求作出的回应,D项“当然,我很乐意”,是恰当的肯定回答,所以正确选项为D项。A项“我要给她买票吗?”对话中并没有提到买票问题,因此A项不符合题意。B项“是的,我很喜欢那个。”这里that指代不清,所以排除。C项“You bet”是俗语,意思是:当然,的确。C项不适合作为对别人请求的回答,所以不选。

4. A: May Isee the dentist now?
B: _____
A. Is it a realemergency?
B. Do you havean appointment?
C. In that case,you’ll have to wait.
D. I’ll talk tothe dentist and squeeze you in.
【答案】B查看答案
【解析】对话里A问B“我现在可以让牙医看看吗?”从对话可知说话双方应该是患者与牙医诊所接待人员。按照常识,接待人员通常会问患者是否有预约,因此选B项。A项表示“真的是急诊吗”,C项表示“那样的话,你就得等了”,D项表示“我会跟医生说并把你加进去”,都不符合此问题的语境。

5. A: Sorryto bother you, but could you tell me the way to Sunset Road?
B: _____
A. Sorry, Icouldn’t help.
B. Yes, what canI do for you?
C. I’m afraid Ihave no idea.
D. It’s not toofar from here, is it?
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】对话里A问B“对不起打扰您了,您能告诉我日落街怎么走吗?”这里表示问路,C项“恐怕我也不知道”是合适的回答,因此选C项。A项“对不起,我不能帮你”回答过于冷漠,不符合交际习惯,在此不合适。B项“是的,我能帮您做什么”与原问题无关。D项是反问:“离这儿不太远,是吗?”故D项也与题意不合。

Section B DialogueComprehension
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short conversations between aman and a woman. At the end of each conversation there is a question followedby 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer to the question fromthe 4 choices by marking the corresponding letter with a single bar across thesquare brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
6. Man:What shall we take for the trip?
Woman: We’d better take the barenecessities.
Question: What does the womansuggest?
A. They shouldtake as little as possible.
B. They shouldtake their daily necessities.
C. They shouldtake as much as they can.
D. They shouldtake nothing with them.
【答案】A查看答案
【解析】在对话中,女士说到:“We’d better take the bare necessities.”Bare necessities意思是尽量少带东西。因此A是正确答案。B项表示“他们必须带上日常必需品”,C项“他们应该尽可能多带些东西”,D项“他们什么也不要带”,都不符合对话中女士的回答。

7. Woman:We are going to go away on vacation ... Can you hear me?
Man: I’m all ears.
Question: What does the man mean?
A. He islistening attentively.
B. He couldn’tcare less.
C. He likes the woman’sidea.
D. He is againstthe woman’s plan.
【答案】A查看答案
【解析】对话中,女士说:“我们打算去度假,你听见了?”男士说:“我在全神贯注地听。”A项与对话中男士的回答相一致,因此A是正确答案。B项表示“他最在乎了”,C项“他喜欢女士的想法”和D项“他反对女士的计划”均不符合题意。

8. Woman:I’m really behind with my project. Can you help me?
Man: I’ m afraid you bit off morethan you could chew!
Question: What does the man mean?
A. He is notwilling to help the woman.
B. The woman isunable to do the project.
C. The woman isdoing more than she can manage.
D. He is not ina position to help the woman.
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】对话中,女士说:“我真的不能按时完成这个项目了,你能帮帮我吗?”男士说:“恐怕你是揽了做不来的活了吧!”这说明该女士选的项目超出了她的能力,C项符合此意思,因此正确答案是C项。A项“他不愿帮这个女士”,B项“女士做不了这个项目”和D项“他帮不了女士”都不符合题意。

9. Woman:There’s Bill on his motorcycle again. Did he get it fixed in the garage?
Man: Don’t be silly. That would havebeen a waste of money. It only had a flat tire.
Question: What does the man imply?
A. The woman wasso silly as to waste much money.
B. It was costlyto have the motorcycle fixed in the garage.
C. Bill musthave repaired the motorcycle himself.
D. There was aserious problem with the motorcycle.
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】对话中,从男士的话中可知,他认为没有必要为车胎瘪了这一个小问题而去修车铺。C项“Bill肯定是自己修了摩托车。”与原文的意思最接近,因此选C项。A项“女士很笨地花了很多钱”不合题意。B项“在车铺修车很贵”与原文意思不一致,因为原文说费钱是到车铺去修跟自己修车相比。D项“车有很大的问题”明显不符合男士回答的最后一句。

10. Man: I’m going to ask the neighbors to turn the music down. I can’t hear myself think.
Woman: Do you really think it makesany difference to them?
Question: What does the woman mean?
A. He shouldhave told them earlier.
B. It is of nouse to turn the music down.
C. Theneighbors will not listen to him.
D. He shouldfocus on his own thinking.
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】对话中,男士想去劝邻居把音乐声放小一点。而女士回答说:“你认为这样会有用吗?”意思是她觉得男士这么做也是没用的。C项“他们不会听你的”符合题意,因此选C项。A项“男士应该早点这么告诉他们”和D项“他应该专心于自己的思考”都与原文意思不符,B项“把音乐关小也没用”与原对话意思相反,因此排除。
Part Ⅱ Vocabulary(10 minutes, 10 points)
Section A
Directions: In this section there are 10 sentences, each with one word orphrase underlined. Choose the one from the 4 choices marked A, B, C and D thatbest keeps the meaning of the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter witha single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
11. The cost of healthcare and healthinsurance remains the most urgent health problem facing the countrytoday.
A. pressing
B. important
C. neglected
D. complicated
【答案】A查看答案
【解析】句意:医药费和医疗保险现在仍是该国所面临的最急需解决的健康问题。urgent紧急的,急迫的。pressing紧迫的。important重要的。neglected被忽视的。complicated复杂的。根据句意,正确答案应为A项。

12. She believes that she is not a good mother because she does notfit the stereotype of a woman who spends all her time with her children.
A. popularimage
B. commonstandard
C. fixedconception
D. pleasantnotion
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:她认为自己不是一位好妈妈,因为她不是把所有的时间都花在孩子身上的那种人。stereotype典型,老套。fixed conception固定概念。popular image受欢迎的形象。common standard共同标准。pleasant notion令人愉快的概念。根据句意,正确答案应为C项。

13. Thus the most logical approach isto focus our analysis on the trade relations of Spain with other Europeancountries.
A. reasoning
B. conclusion
C. position
D. method
【答案】D查看答案
【解析】句意:那么最合逻辑的办法就是把分析的重点放在西班牙与其他欧洲国家的贸易关系上。approach方法。method方法。reasoning推理,论证。conclusion结束,结论。position位置,职位。根据句意,正确答案应为D项。

14. We no longer keep up the closefriendship of a few years ago, though we still visit each other on occasion.
A. in good time
B. up to date
C. now and then
D. once and forall
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:虽然我们偶尔还相互拜访,但是没有了几年前的那种亲密的关系。onoccasion有时,时不时。nowand then偶尔。in goodtime及时地。up to date最新的。once and for all断然地。根据句意,正确答案应为C项。

15. The university offered several morecourses for the purpose of furthering the career aspirations of itsstudents.
A. ambitions
B. achievements
C. advantages
D. advances
【答案】A查看答案
【解析】句意:该大学多安排了几门课程,目的是进一步拓宽学生就业的思路。aspiration渴望,志向。ambition雄心。achievement成就。advantage优势,有利条件。advance前进,预付款。根据句意,正确答案应为A项。

16. Many women prefer to use cosmetics to enhancetheir beauty and make them look younger.
A. enforce
B. magnify
C. improve
D. polish
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:许多女人喜欢用化妆品使自己看上去更漂亮、更年轻。enhance加强,提高。improve改善,改进。enforce强迫;执行。magnify放大;夸大。polish擦亮;润色。根据句意,正确答案应为C项。

17. The leaders of the two countries areplanning their summit meeting with a pledge to maintain and develop goodties.
A. strategy
B. standpoint
C. promise
D. priority
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:两国领导人正计划召开最高级会谈,承诺保持并进一步发展两国的良好关系。pledge保证。promise允诺。strategy策略。standpoint立场。priority优先权。根据句意,正确答案应为C项。

18. Many youngsters have heard theirparents say “you’ll never amount to anything if you keep daydreamingthat way!”
A. be equal to
B. accomplish
C. add up to
D. pursue
【答案】B查看答案
【解析】句意:许多年轻人都听父母说过,“人如果整天做白日梦的话,什么也干不成!”amount to相当于。never amount to anything一事无成。accomplish完成,实现。be equal to胜任;相等。add up to合计。pursue追赶;从事。根据句意,正确答案应为B项。

19. Readers are required to abide bythe rules of the library and mind their manners.
A. observe
B. memorize
C. review
D. compose
【答案】A查看答案
【解析】句意:读者必须遵守图书馆的规定,注意行为举止。abide by遵守。observe观察;遵守。memorize记忆。review复习;评论。compose组成;写作。根据句意,正确答案应为A项。

20. The coach explained the regulations atlength to make sure that none of his players would become violators.
A. at last
B. at large
C. in detail
D. in short
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:为了确保队员们不会犯规,教练详细地解释了规则。indetail详细地。at length最后;详细地。at last终于。at large在逃;普遍。in short简而言之。根据句意,正确答案应为C项。

Section B
Directions: In this section, there are 10 incomplete sentences. For eachsentence there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that bestcompletes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single baracross the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
21. The violent _____ of his youthreappeared and was directed not only at the army, but at his wife as well.
A. impatience
B. character
C. temper
D. quality
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:他那年轻时期的暴躁脾气又来了,而且不只是针对军队,他还对他夫人发火。impatience急躁。character性格;人物。temper性情,脾气。quality质量。根据句意和搭配,正确选项应为C项。

22. This hypothesis states that environments that are too clean mayactually make the_____ system develop oversensitive responses.
A. mental
B. nervous
C. immune
D. physical
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:这种理论认为,过分干净的环境实际上会使我们的免疫系统过分地敏感。immune免疫的。mental精神的;智力的。nervous神经的;紧张的,不安的。physical身体的;物质的。根据句意和搭配,正确选项应为C项。

23. The Adult Vocational College is an opportunity to gain the rightqualifications for various careers, for it offers an _____ range of subjectsand courses.
A. additional
B. excessive
C. adequate
D. extensive
【答案】D查看答案
【解析】句意:成人职业学院为人们提供机会,获取各种职业所需的资格证书,因为该学院提供范围广泛的学科和课程。extensive广大的;广泛的。additional另外的,额外的。excessive过多的。adequate适当的,足够的。根据句意和搭配,正确选项应为D项。

24. It’s disturbing to note how many of the crimes we do know aboutwere detected _____, not by systematic inspections or other securityprocedures.
A. by accident
B. on schedule
C. in general
D. at intervals
【答案】A查看答案
【解析】句意:许多我们所知的犯罪案是偶然被侦破的,而不是通过系统的侦察或其他安全措施破获的,这一点很让人担忧。by accident偶然。on schedule按时。in general通常;一般而言。at intervals不时。根据句意,正确选项应为A项。

25. You can always _____ Jim in a crisis,for he is simply the most helpful person I’ve ever known.
A. refer to
B. count on
C. cope with
D. run into
【答案】B查看答案
【解析】句意:在你有难时吉姆总是靠得住的,因为他是我所认识的人当中最乐于助人的。count on依靠,指望。refer to查阅;提到。cope with与……竞争;应付。run into跑进;撞上。根据句意和搭配,正确选项应为B项。

26. He wanted to stay at home, but at lasthe agreed, very _____ though, to go to the concert.
A. decisively
B. reluctantly
C. willingly
D. deliberately
【答案】B查看答案
【解析】句意:他本想留在家里,但是最后很勉强地同意去看音乐会了。reluctantly不情愿地。decisively决然地。willingly自动地。deliberately故意地。根据句意和搭配,正确选项应为B项。

27. The audience, hostile at first, weregreatly _____by her excellent performance.
A. annoyed
B. encouraged
C. impressed
D. depressed
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:观众一开始不太友好,但是后来对她精彩的表演产生了深刻的印象。impressed深刻印象的。annoyed苦恼的。encouraged受到鼓励的。depressed沮丧的。根据句意和搭配,正确选项应为C项。


28. Many birds and insects can build _____ neststo provide shelter for their young.
A. glorious
B. elaborate
C. splendid
D. advanced
【答案】B查看答案
【解析】句意:许多鸟类和昆虫都能建造精致的巢穴,为它们的幼仔提供安身之处。elaborate精心制作的。glorious光荣的;显赫的。splendid壮丽的;极好的。advanced高级的。根据句意和搭配,正确选项应为B项。

29. Two decades ago a woman who shook handswith men on her own _____ was usually viewed as too forward.
A. endeavor
B. initiative
C. motivation
D. preference
【答案】B查看答案
【解析】句意:二十年前,如果一位女士主动伸手与男士握手,这会被认为不够矜持。initiative主动。endeavor努力。motivation动机。preference偏爱;优先选择。根据句意和搭配,正确选项应为B项。

30. The fruit _____ more than half thecountry’s annual exports, according to a recent report.
A. accounts for
B. stands for
C. provides for
D. makes for
【答案】A查看答案
【解析】句意:根据近期的一项报告,水果在该国年出口总量中占一半以上。accountfor说明;占。stand for代表;支持。provide for做准备;供养。make for有利于。根据句意和搭配,正确选项应为A项。
Part Ⅲ ReadingComprehension (45 minutes,25points)
Directions: There are 5 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by5 questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are 4 choicesmarked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark the corresponding letterwith a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWERSHEET.
Passage One
Sea horses areunusual parents. The female sea horses lay the eggs, but unlike othercreatures, it’s the males that give birth to the young.
Male sea horseshave a fold of skin on their bellies that forms a pocket, called a brood pouch.During the breeding season, the sea horse’s pouch swells to receive eggs. Afemale sea horse lays up to 200 eggs at a time in the pouch. Then she swimsoff, leaving her male partner to care for the developing eggs and give birth toyoung sea horses. The female will return every day to check on her mate and theeggs, but she doesn’t stay long, nor does she take part in the birth.
It takes fromtwo to six weeks for the eggs in the male’s pouch to develop. During this timethe male avoids open water and hides in sea grass. His big pouch makes itdifficult for him to swim, so the male often uses his tail to grasp a piece ofsea grass. Firmly gripping the grass, he will stay perfectly still for hours oreven days. The male sea horse will change his color to blend with hissurroundings and avoid being seen by his predators who will try to eat him orpoke holes in his pouch to get the eggs.
The eggs hatchinside the male’s pouch. When the babies begin moving around; the male seahorse knows it’s time for them to be born. He grabs a sea grass stem with histail and begins rocking, bending his body back and forth. This causes theopening to enlarge until it is wide enough for the first baby sea horse toshoot out. The father sea horse continue rocking, bending, and stretching hisbody so that the rest of the babies can be born. Sometimes he has to press his pouchagainst a rock or some stiff seaweed to force the young out.
Sea horse babiesare born in groups of five or more. Sometimes it takes two days for the fathersea horse to give birth to all his young. He is very tired when it’s over.
Soon aftergiving birth to one brood, the male will approach his mate and show her hisempty pouch. This tells her he is ready to receive eggs again.
31. What part does the female sea horseplay in having babies?
A. Receivingeggs.
B. Laying eggs.
C. Hatchingeggs.
D. Protectingeggs.
32. What can be learned from the passageabout giving birth to baby sea horses?
A. It isdangerous for the female.
B. It happensonce a year.
C. It is hardwork for the male.
D. It occurs inthe deep sea.
33. To protect himself and his eggs, the malesea horse does all the following EXCEPT _____.
A. changing hiscolor
B. gripping apiece of grass
C. stayingmotionless
D. enlarginghis pouch
34. The author suggests that when sea horsebabies are ready to be born _____.
A. the male seahorse seems very happy
B. it isdifficult for them to come out
C. the femalesea horse joins the male
D. they needlarger space in the pouch
35. Which fact does the author want thereader to remember most?
A. The male seahorse gives birth to the young.
B. The female seahorse lays up to 200 eggs at a time.
C. Baby seahorses are born in groups of five or more.
D. The femalewill return every day to check on the eggs.
【答案与解析】
31. B
[定位]根据题干“the female sea horse playin having babies”定位到文章第一段第二句。
[点睛]细节题。第二句提到,雌海马产卵,但是不同于其他动物,是雄海马生产。后文中接着介绍了卵产在雄海马的袋囊中后,剩余的都交给雄海马负责了。所以正确选项为B项。
[避错]第二段指出,雌海马把卵产在了雄海马的袋囊中,因此A项排除。第三、四段告诉我们,孵卵和保护卵的部分都是由雄海马完成的,因此排除C、D项。
32. C
[定位]根据题干“giving birth to baby seahorses”定位到文章第四段。
[点睛]细节题。文章第四段主要描述了雄海马是如何产下小海马的,过程非常的艰难,因此正确答案为C项。
[避错]文章第一、二段说到雌海马只完成产卵,后面孵卵的艰难过程是雄海马经历的,因此A项错误。文章并没有提到过雄海马一年几次孵出小海马,也没有说这一过程发生在深海,因此B、D项排除。
33. D
[定位]根据题干“To protect himself and hiseggs”定位到文章第三段第二句到第六句。
[点睛]细节题。文中提到在开始装卵时swell the pouch,生小海马时enlarge the opening of thepouch,都不是为了保护海马爸爸和小海马的举措,因此正确选项为D项。
[避错]第三段提到海马爸爸紧紧抓住海草,几小时或几天都不动。它还改变身体的颜色使其和周围的环境一致,以免掠食者发现将其吃掉或在其袋囊上戳洞来吃掉卵。所以A、B、C三项都是雄海马为保护自己和卵采取的举措,因此排除。
34. B
[定位]根据题干“when sea horse babies areready to be born”定位到文章第四段第三句到第六句。
[点睛]细节题。根据第四段的描述可知产出小海马的过程很艰难,而且通过动词如“press”“force”可知,B项应该为正确选项。
[避错]文章并没有提到雄海马很快乐,因此排除A项。由第四段可知,产出小海马是由雄海马独自完成的,雌海马不参与其中,因此排除C项。文章并没有提到小海马在袋囊里需要更大空间,因此排除D项。
35. A
[定位]根据题意定位到文章第一段。
[点睛]通常英文文章一般将最重要的内容或文章主题放在开头,本文开头说了海马不同于其他动物的地方就在于孵卵的任务是由雄海马完成的,接着用了大量篇幅描写了海马爸爸孕育和生小海马的过程,因此正确选项为A项。
[避错]B、C、D项都是小海马出生这一过程的一些细节介绍,不是作者最想要读者记住的,因此排除。
【全文翻译】
[35]海马在做父母方面是与众不同的。[31]雌海马产下卵,但和其他动物不同的是,是雄海马孵出小海马。
雄海马腹部的一层皮肤褶皱形成了一个腹囊,俗称育儿袋。在繁殖季节,海马的育儿袋会膨胀起来以能装下卵。每次雌海马在育儿袋里产下200颗卵后就游走了,留下她的配偶来照顾正在发育的幼卵并随后孵出小海马。雌海马会每天回来看看她的配偶和幼卵,但她停留的时间不长,而且她也不参与小海马出生的这一过程。
这些卵在雄海马的育儿袋里发育的时间为两到六个星期。[33]在这期间,雄海马会避免到露天的水域去,并且躲藏在海草里。硕大的育儿袋使得雄海马游动起来非常困难,因此他常常利用尾巴来抓住一片海草。当雄海马紧紧地抓住海草时,他会一动不动地待在那里,待的时间长达数小时甚至好几天。雄海马还会改变体色来跟他周围的环境融合在一起,如果有掠食者试图吃掉他或刺破他的育儿袋来抢夺幼卵,那么雄海马这么做就能避免被这些捕食者发现。
[32]这些幼卵是在雄海马的育儿袋里进行孵化的。当小海马开始在育儿袋里四处游动时,雄海马知道小海马就快要出生了。[34]他用尾部抓住海草的茎并且开始摆动,来回反复地弯曲和伸展自己的身体,这么做使得育儿袋的开口扩张得足够大,这样其他剩下的小海马就能生出来。有时候雄海马不得不在岩石上或坚硬的海草上挤压育儿袋,来迫使小海马出来。海马宝宝五个一群或者更多的数量一起成群地被生出来。有时候海马爸爸把所有的海马宝宝生出来要用去两天时间。当生产结束时,雄海马已经累得筋疲力尽了。
在雄海马生产完一窝后不久,他将靠近他的配偶,并给她看他的空育儿袋。他这么做是在告诉雌海马,他已经准备好再次“受卵”了。

Passage Two
When 23-year-oldEric Atienza graduated from college last year, he didn’t have a job. Notwanting to give up his apartment and move back with his parents, he did whatmany young Americans are doing: he signed up with a temp agency, which placesworkers on short-term jobs. Temporary workers such as Atienza comprise 20percent of the US work force. In 1985, 417,000 workers were classified astemporary help. In 2005, there are more than 2.5 million, according to LabourDepartment data.
Using temporaryworkers allows companies to increase or decrease the number of staff as theirworkloads change. It also allows companies to avoid the costs involved inhiring and firing long-term employees.
Many temp agencyowners and career specialists say temping is a good way for recent graduates toget experience. “Short-term jobs let graduates try out different companies tofind the best fit,” said Pegi Wheatley, owner of McCall Staffing, a SanFrancisco temp agency.
But things don’talways work out that way. “When I started temping, I had this notion thattemporary job could turn full-time. It worked for a friend of mine, but thatdidn’t happen for me,” said Atienza, who quickly became bored with his officework. Atienza stayed with the temp agency because he could earn $ 10 an hourdoing office work. Other short-term jobs, such as working as a store clerk orin a cafe, pay about $7.
But there weretrade-offs for the higher pay. Because in the US, health insurance is providedthrough employer, most temps are not eligible for workplace health benefits.Atienza ran the risk that an accident or illness would land him in the hospitalwith no way to pay the bill. Other drawbacks, though less serious, still meanthat temping for most graduates is exactly what its name implies—a temporarychoice. Instability, gaps between contracts, lack of vacation time andisolation from other employees are often-cited negatives.
“Temping gave methe time to figure out what I wanted to do, because I could pay off my bills.But none of that came from the jobs themselves,” said Atienza, who quit tempinglast month in favor of a full-time job.
36. Atienza took a short-term job mainlybecause _____.
A. he didn’twant to give up his apartment
B. he liked totry out different companies
C. he wanted toget more experience
D. he couldn’tfind a long-term job
37. According to the passage, in the yearof 2005, the United States had a workforce of more than _____.
A. 25 million
B. 12.5 million
C. 4.17 million
D. 2.5 million
38. Which is NOT mentioned as an advantageof temping?
A. It givesrecent graduates experience.
B. It enablesemployers to adjust their workforce.
C. A temporaryjob will turn full-time.
D. Employerscan reduce their costs.
39. Atienza stayed with the temp agency forsome time because _____.
A. he liked hisoffice work
B. he was satisfiedwith the pay
C. his employerprovided health insurance
D. he hatedgaps between contracts
40. What does the word “trade-offs” inParagraph 5 mean?
A. Benefits.
B. Compromises.
C. Risks.
D.Disadvantages.
【答案与解析】
36. D
[定位]根据题干“Atienza took a short-termjob mainly because”定位到文章第一段第一句和第二句。
[点睛]推测题。文章开头提到,Atienza毕业后找不到工作,他又不想搬回家和父母住在一起,所以找了一份临时工作,所以实际上他是找不到一份长期工作,因此正确选项为D项。
[避错]他的确是不想放弃他的公寓,但并不是他做临时工作的主要原因,只能算间接原因,因为为了不放弃公寓他也可以做长期工作,但是他找不到,所以只能做短期的,因此A项排除。B项文中没有提及。C项不是他做临时工作的原因,因此排除C项。
37. B
[定位]根据题干“the United States had aworkforce of”定位到文章第一段第三句和第五句。
[点睛]细节题。第三句提到,美国临时工占总劳动力的20%,第五句说到,2005年美国有临时工250万人,故2005年美国劳动力为250万除以20%等于1250万,因此正确答案为B项。
[避错]注意区分文章中数字的指向对象,不要弄混淆。
38. C
[定位]根据题干“an advantage of temping”定位到文章第二、三、四段。
[点睛]细节题。文章第四段提到了作者以前认为临时工作会转为长期的工作,但是那发生在朋友身上,却没能发生在自己身上,事实证明自己原先的想法错了,因此正确答案为C项。
[避错]第二段提到,雇主可以通过雇佣临时工根据工作量调整员工的数目,并且还可以减少成本。故B项和D项是临时工作的优点,所以排除。A项的内容在第三段有原话,“a good way for recent graduates to get experience”,是其中的一个优点,因此排除。
39. B
[定位]根据题干“stayed with the temp agencyfor some time”定位到文章第四段第四、五句。
[点睛]细节题。第四段第四、五句提到,Atienza还在为临时职业机构工作是因为他做办公室的工作一个小时可以挣10美元。而其他临时工作,比如说商店的工作或快餐店的工作,一小时才挣7美元左右。故Atienza看重的是酬劳,因此正确选项为B项。
[避错]第四段第三句说到Atienza厌倦了办公室的工作,故A项排除。第五段讲到Atienza如果生了大病,那么他可能支付不起费用,可知他的工作和大多数临时工作一样是没有医疗保险的,因此排除C项。D项文中没有提及,因此排除。
40. B
[定位]根据题干“trade-offs”定位到文章第五段第一句和第五句。
[点睛]推断题。第五句第一句承上启下,前面讲了临时工作的好处,接着一个“but”开始,后面介绍了不足的地方,就是大部分临时工是没有医疗保险的,所以两者形成了一个相互权衡的关系,故“trade-offs”是“权衡”的意思。B项有“折衷”的意思,符合题意,因此正确选项为B项。
[避错]A项表示“好处”、C项表示“风险”、D项表示“劣势”均不符合题意和上下文,因此排除。
【全文翻译】
[36]23岁的埃里克·阿蒂恩萨去年从大学毕业,当时他没有找到工作。但是因为他不想搬出公寓而回家和父母住在一起,因此他像很多美国年轻人一样,跟一家临时工中介公司签了约,这家中介公司可以提供短期的工作。[37]像阿蒂恩萨这样的临时工在美国总的劳动力中占了20%。1985年,41.7万名工作者被划分到临时工的队伍当中。由劳动部统计数据得知,2005年,临时工的数量已经超过了250万。
[38]雇用临时工,对公司而言,就可以在工作量变动的时侯增加或减少职员的数量,这样公司也节省了用于雇用或解雇长期雇员的成本。
很多临时工中介公司的老板和职业专家认为,对于刚毕业的大学生来说,短期工作是获得经验的一种好方法。佩吉·惠特利是旧金山一家临时工作中介公司的老板,他说:“临时工作使大学生尝试在不同的公司工作,最终找到最适合自己的工作。”
但事情往往并不是这个样子。阿蒂恩萨说:“当我开始做临时工作的时候,我心里就有种想法,临时的工作总是会转变成全职工作的。这一点在我朋友的身上发生了,却并没有出现在我的身上。”[39]他很快就对办公室的工作感到了厌倦。尽管如此,那时阿蒂恩萨依然留在临时工中介公司工作,因为他在办公室的工作一小时能赚10美元。其他的临时工作,比如在咖啡馆里当店员,每小时的报酬大约是7美元。
[40]尽管报酬高,但还是有弊端。因为在美国,健康保险是雇主发放的,大多数的短期员工不符合职工健康福利的标准。阿蒂恩萨因此承担着这种风险:某种疾病或事故会让他住院,但是同时他将无法支付医疗费。临时工作还有着其他缺点,尽管不是那么严重的劣势,但仍然意味着,对大多数大学毕业生来说,临时工作的确就像字面意思那样——它是一种临时的选择。不稳定性、合同里的漏洞、休假时间少、被其他员工孤立,这些都是经常被提及的负面因素。
阿蒂恩萨说:“临时工作让我有时间去弄清楚我想要做什么,因为我能够付清自己的账单了。但是我的那些想法和工作本身没有任何关系。”上个月他辞掉了临时工作,想找一份全职工作。

Passage Three
Scientists arehoping to eliminate malaria(疟疾) by developing a genetically modified mosquito that cannot transmitthe disease. Malaria has long troubled the populations of South America, Africaand Asia, where mosquito bites infect up to 500 million people a year with thisserious and sometimes fatal parasitic blood disease. For generations,scientists have been trying to eliminate malaria by developing new drugs andusing pesticides(杀虫剂) to wipe out local mosquito populations. But these measures aren’tworking—and some scientists, like Greg Lanzaro, say that because of drugresistance and population changes, malaria is actually more prevalent now thanit was 20 years ago. Lanzaro says he has a better way to stop the spread ofmalaria: genetically modifying mosquitoes so they are unable to carry thedisease.
Lanzaro and hiscolleagues are planning a multi-year project to produce malaria-resistantmosquitoes and he thinks they can do it within five years. “We can get foreigngenes into mosquitoes and they go where they’re supposed to go,” Lanzaro says,pointing out that scientists have already succeeded in genetically engineeringmosquitoes that cannot transmit malaria to birds and mice. And, he says,scientists are quickly making progress on genes that block transmission of thedisease to humans as well.
The mostdifficult part scientifically, Lanzaro says, is figuring out how to get thelab-engineered mosquitoes to spread their genes into natural populations. Afterall, he points out, it’s useless to engineer mosquitoes in the lab that can’ttransmit malaria when there are millions out in the wild that can. To solvethis problem, Lanzaro wants to load up a mobile piece of DNA with themalaria-resistant gene, and then insert it into a group of mosquito embryos.The malaria-resistant gene would be integrated directly into the mosquitoes’DNA, making it impossible for those mosquitoes to transmit the parasite thatcauses malaria. In this way a small group of lab-raised mosquitoes could bereleased into the wild, and by interbreeding with wild mosquitoes, eventuallytransmit the beneficial gene to the entire population.
41. One reason for malaria to be morewidespread now is that _____.
A. more peoplehave moved to malaria-infected areas
B. mosquitoeshave become resistant to pesticides
C. geneticallymodified mosquitoes still transmit the disease
D. mosquitoesbite as many as 500 million people a year
42. Lanzaro is hopeful that in a few yearsman can _____.
A. start toeliminate malaria
B. cureparasitic blood diseases
C. prevent micefrom transmitting parasites
D. acquireimmunity against malaria
43. Lanzaro is confident that scientistscan block the transmission of malaria to humans because _____.
A. naturalmosquito populations do not change
B. scientistshave succeeded with birds and mice
C. foreigngenes always go where they are required
D. lab-raisedmosquitoes will not be resistant to drugs
44. What is the most difficult part ofLanzaro’s project?
A. Spreadingmalaria-resistant genes into natural mosquito populations.
B. Raisingmalaria-resistant mosquitoes.
C. Making genesthat block the transmission of malaria.
D. Identifyingmalaria-resistant genes.
45. According to the passage, a fundamentalway to wipe out malaria is to _____.
A. develop newmalaria-resistant drugs
B. produceeffective pesticides to kill mosquitoes
C. change thegenetic makeup of mosquitoes
D. removepeople from malaria-infected areas
【答案与解析】
41. B
[定位]根据题干“malaria to be morewidespread now”定位到文章第一段第五句。
[点睛]细节题。第四句提到,之前的那些措施都没什么作用,因为蚊子的抗药性和数量的变化,疟疾现在比20年前更加猖獗了,B项符合题意,因此B为正确选项。
[避错]A项文中没有提到,因此排除。C项与文章主要内容相矛盾,因此排除。D项虽然文章提到,但是却不是疟疾更加猖獗的原因,故排除。
42. A
[定位]根据题干“Lanzaro is hopeful that”定位到文章第二段。
[点睛]细节题。第二段提到了Lanzaro创造抗疟疾蚊子的项目的现状与前景,清楚地表达了他对于该项目在减少疟疾方面不断取得进展的肯定和希望,因此A项为正确选项。
[避错]B项和C项文章没有提到,因此排除。D项“获得针对疟疾的免疫力”曲解了文章的意思,文章的意思是改造蚊子基因以减少蚊子传播疟疾最终消灭疟疾,跟免疫力无关,故排除D项。
43. B
[定位]根据题干“can block the transmissionof malaria to humans”定位到文章第二段第三、四句。
[点睛]细节题。第二、三句提到,科学家已经成功在鸟类和老鼠身上做了实验,不久有望阻断该疾病传播到人类身上,因此正确答案为B项。
[避错]第一段第四句说过,蚊子的数量发生了改变,所以A项错误,故排除。C项过于绝对,与文章内容不符,因此排除。D项文中没有提及。
44. A
[定位]根据题干“most difficult part”定位到文章第三段第一句。
[点睛]细节题。第一句提到,该项目在科学上最困难的部分就是,怎样将带有抗疟疾基因的蚊子散播到自然界的蚊子种群当中,因此正确答案为A项。
[避错]B项和C项只是这一项目的小细节,不是最困难的部分,故排除。D项文章未提及,因此排除D项。
45. C
[定位]根据题干“a fundamental way to wipeout malaria”定位到文章第一段最后一句。
[点睛]细节题。第一段第一句提到科学家希望通过改变蚊子的基因,使其不能传播疟疾来最终消灭这种疾病,因此正确答案为C项。
[避错]A项和B项是科学家以前用过的办法,但是不起作用,因此排除。D项文中没有提及。
【全文翻译】
科学家们有这种希望,通过培育出能够阻止病毒传播的转基因蚊子来消灭疟疾。南美洲、非洲和亚洲的居民长期以来忍受着疟疾的困扰。在这些地方,每年有多达5亿的人口因为被蚊子叮咬,而传染上了这种严重的、有时甚至是致命的寄生虫性血液疾病。科学家们历来都一直试图通过研制新药,或使用杀虫剂以消灭当地蚊子的这些方法来根除疟疾。[41]但是这些方法都没有起到作用——格雷格·兰萨罗等一些科学家认为,由于蚊子的抗药性以及其种群的演变,实际上疟疾现在的传播程度比20年前的情况更加严重。[45]兰萨罗说他有一套更好的办法来阻断疟疾的传播:对蚊子的基因组成进行改造,这样它们就无法携带疟疾的病原体。
[42]兰萨罗和他的同事正计划一个为期多年的项目,目的是培育出携带疟疾抗体的蚊子——他认为在五年以内他们就能够培育成功。兰萨罗说:“我们可以将异体基因植入蚊子体内,然后让它们飞到指定的地方。”[43]兰萨罗指出,科学家已经成功地在蚊子身上进行了基因改造,并且顺利使它们无法将疟疾传播给鸟类和老鼠。同时他还说,科学家们在基因研究方面正很快取得进展,以最终杜绝疟疾通过蚊子传播给人类。
[44]兰萨罗说,该项目从科技上来讲,其最困难的部分,是想办法使抗疟疾基因从在实验室内接受了疟疾基因改造工程的蚊子,传播到蚊子的自然种群中去。他指出,毕竟当还有数百万的蚊子在野外传播疟疾时,我们还只在实验室中改造蚊子基因使其不传播疟疾,这样是达不到效果的。为了解决这个问题,兰萨罗打算将携带了动态单体的抗疟疾基因植入一组蚊子的胚胎中。抗疟疾基因将会直接和蚊子本身的DNA结合在一起,这就阻断了蚊子传播疟疾致病虫。这样一来,一小群实验室饲养的蚊子被释放到野地,然后它们再与野生蚊子进行交配繁殖,最终能将这种有益的基因传播到整个蚊子种群中去。

Passage Four
At all ages andat all stages of life, fear presents a problem to almost everyone. “We arelargely the playthings of our Fears,” wrote the British author Horace Walpolemany years ago. “To one, fear of the dark; to another, of physical pain; to athird, of public ridicule; to a fourth, of poverty; to a fifth, ofloneliness—for all of us our particular creature waits in a hidden place.”
Fear is often auseful emotion. When you become frightened, many physical changes occur withinyour body. Your heartbeat and responses quicken ; your pupils expand to admitmore light; large quantities of energy-producing adrenaline(肾上腺素) are poured into yourbloodstream. Confronted with a fire or accident, fear can fuel life-savingflight(逃离).Similarly, when a danger is psychological rather than physical, fear can forceyou to take self-protective measures. It is only when fear is disproportionalto the danger at hand that it becomes a problem.
Some people aresimply more vulnerable to fear than others. A visit to the newborn nursery ofany large hospital will demonstrate that, from the moment of their births, afew fortunate infants respond calmly to sudden fear—producing situations suchas a loudly slammed door. Yet a neighbor in the next bed may cry out withprofound fright. From birth, he or she is more prone to learn fearful responsesbecause he or she has inherited a tendency to be more sensitive.
Further,psychologists know that our early experiences and relationships strongly shapeand determine our later fears. A young man named Bill, for example, grew upwith a father who regarded each adversity as a temporary obstacle to beovercome with imagination and courage. Using his father as a model, Bill cameto welcome adventure and to trust his own ability to solve problems.
Phil’s dad,however, spent most of his time trying to protect himself and his family.Afraid to risk the insecurity of a job change, he remained unhappy in oneposition. He avoided long vacations because “the car might break down.” Growingup in such a home, Phil naturally learned to become fearful and tense.
46. In the last sentence of Paragraph 1,“our particular creature” refers to _____.
A. fear ofsomething
B. a fiercebeast
C. physicalpain
D. publicridicule
47. Fear can be a useful emotion to usbecause it can _____.
A. stimulatemany physical changes within our body
B. quicken ourheartbeat and responses
C. pour largequantities of adrenaline into our bloodstream
D. help usrespond quickly to danger and protect ourselves
48. Fear becomes a problem only when _____.
A. the dangeris thought greater than it really is
B. the dangeris more psychological than physical
C. one cannotstand the danger
D. one is notwell prepared for it
49. Different responses of newborn infantsto a loudly slammed door imply that _____.
A. some peopleare inherently more easily affected by danger
B. people’sresponse to stimuli is not an inherited feature
C. some peopleseem to be very sensitive to noise
D. peoplesometimes seem to turn a deaf ear to noise
50. Psychologists have found that our laterfears are determined largely by our _____.
A. homeeducation
B. schooleducation
C. parents’lifestyle
D. earlyexperiences
【答案与解析】
46. A
[定位]根据题干“our particular creature”定位到文章第一段最后一句。
[点睛]推测题。第一段提到,对不同的人来说害怕的事物也是不同的,最后一句话说,“对所有的人来说,我们人类特有的造物藏在什么地方等着我们”,结合上下文,正确答案应该为A项。
[避错]B项文中未提及。C项和D项都分别是我们恐惧的其中一种类型,不符合题意,因此排除。
47. D
[定位]根据题干“Fear can be a usefulemotion”定位到文章第二段第一句到第五句。
[点睛]细节题。第二段第一句说到恐惧是一种有用的情绪,后面具体分析了它如何让我们产生了生理变化,这些生理变化的目的就是帮助我们快速对危险做出反应从而保护好自己,因此正确答案为D项。
[避错]A、B、C三项都是为保护自身安全做出的反应,属于实现这一目标的方式,不能作为恐惧有用性的直接原因,因此排除。
48. A
[定位]根据题干“Fear becomes a problem onlywhen”定位到文章第二段最后一句。
[点睛]细节题。第二段最后一句说到,“只有当恐惧与即将到来的危险不成比例时,恐惧才会变成一种问题。”恐惧与危险不成比例这时就意味着心理上夸大了危险,因此正确答案为A项。
[避错]B项不合题意,因此排除。C、D项文中未提及,故排除。
49. A
[定位]根据题干“Different responses ofnewborn infants”定位到文章第三段。
[点睛]细节题。第三段第一句提到,有些人就是容易比别人感到害怕,文章接着利用婴儿对关门的噪音做出不同反应的例子补充说明了这一观点,因此A项为正确选项。
[避错]B项与文章内容相矛盾,因此B项排除。C项不是暗示出来的,不合题意,故排除。D项文中未提及,也与题目无关,故不选。
50. D
[定位]根据题干“our later fears are determinedlargely by”定位到文章第四段第一句。
[点睛]细节题。第四段第一句提到,心理学家指导早期的经历以及和别人的关系会极大地塑造和决定我们成人后的恐惧感,因此D项为正确选项。
[避错]A、B、C项都属于D早期经历的一部分,不够完整,所以排除。
【全文翻译】
不管在人生的哪个年龄层和哪个阶段,恐惧几乎是人人都会面临的问题。“在很大程度上,我们都是自身恐惧的玩物,”许多年前,英国作家贺瑞斯·沃波尔曾写道,“有的人害怕黑暗,有的人害怕身体上的疼痛;有的人害怕公众的嘲弄,有的人害怕贫困,有的人则害怕孤独——[46]对所有人来说,我们的某种特殊造物隐藏在某个地方等待着我们。”
[47]通常情况下,恐惧是一种有用的情绪。当你受到惊吓的时侯,你的体内会发生很多生理变化。你的心跳会加速,反应会更快;瞳孔会放大以吸收更多的光线;有助于产生能量的肾上腺素大量地涌入血液。当发生火灾或突发事件时,恐惧能够帮助你快速逃离以便更有力量自救。同样,当危险与其说是生理上的不如说是心理上时,恐惧也能迫使你采取自我保护的措施。[48]只有当恐惧与即将来临的危险不成比例的时候,恐惧才会成为一个问题。
[49]相比其他人,有些人就是更加容易感到恐惧。你如果去参观一下任何大医院的新生儿保育室,都能发现这样一个现象,从婴儿出生的那刻起,只有一些幸运的婴儿能对那些突然产生的恐惧情境作出平静的回应,比如听到关门的巨大声响时。而近处床上的婴儿可能会因为巨大的恐惧感而大哭起来。从刚出生开始,他或她就比别人更容易学到有恐惧感的反应,因为他或她天生就有一种更易敏感的倾向。
[50]此外,心理学家们知道,我们早期的经历和与他人的各种关系强有力地塑造并决定了我们日后的恐惧感。例如,一位名叫比尔的年轻人跟随父亲生活长大,他的父亲将每次的挫折都看做是暂时的困难,用想象力和勇气就可以克服。比尔将父亲当做自己的榜样,他也逐渐变得敢于冒险,并且相信自己有解决问题的能力。
对比之下,菲尔的父亲把绝大部分的时间都用在努力保护自己和家庭上。由于害怕因变换工作而带来的不稳定因素,他始终坚守着一个岗位,却工作得不开心。他逃避长途旅行,因为“汽车可能会发生垮掉”。在这样的家庭环境中长大,菲尔自然变得容易害怕和紧张。

Passage Five
According toScott Adams, creator of the comic strip(系列漫画) Dilbert, the annual performance review is “one of the mostfrightening and weakening experiences in every employee’s life”. Adams’ storiesand comic figures poke fun at the workplace, but his characterization ofpeople’s feelings about the annual performance review has its serious side.Although a recent study of 437 companies indicates that effective annualreviews can help raise profits, most employees of those companies hate them.
In theory,annual performance reviews are constructive and positive interactions betweenmanagers and employees working together to attain maximum performance andstrengthen the organization. In reality, they often create division, underminemorale, and spark anger and jealousy. Thus, although the object of the annualperformance review is to improve performance, it often has the opposite result.A programmer at an IT firm was stunned to learn at her annual performancereview that she was denied a promotion because she wasn’t a “team player.” Whatwere the data used to make this judgment? She didn’t smile in the companyphoto.
Although thisstory might sound as if it came straight out of Dilbert, it is a true accountof one woman’s experience. By following a few ideas and guidelines fromindustry analysis, this kind of ordeal can be avoided:
To end the yearwith a positive and useful performance review, managers and employees muststart the year by working together to establish clear goals and expectations.
It may behelpful to allow employees to propose a list of people associated with thecompany who will be in a good position to assess their performance at the endof the year; these people may be co- workers, suppliers, or even customers.
Goals should bemeasurable but flexible, and everyone should sign off on the plan.
By checkingemployees’ progress at about nine months, managers can give them a chance tocorrect mistakes and provide guidance to those who need it before the year isout.
When conductingthe review, managers should highlight strengths and weaknesses during the pastyear and discuss future responsibilities, avoiding punishment or blame. Inshort, when employees leave their performance reviews, they should be focusingon what they can do better in the year ahead, not worrying about what went intotheir files about the past.
51. In his comic strip Dilbert, Scott Adams_____.
A. makes fun ofworking people
B. tells astory about a woman employee
C. mocks annualperformance reviews
D. promotesteam spirit among co-workers
52. All the followings are mentioned as thedrawbacks of annual performance reviews EXCEPT _____.
A. creatingtension
B. reducingefficiency
C. underminingmorale
D. inducinganger
53. The word “ordeal” in Paragraph 3probably refers to _____.
A. depressiveexperience
B. likelihoodof promotion
C. poorperformance
D. unrealisticexpectation
54. The annual performance reviews, to beeffective, must focus on _____.
A. makingemployees aware of their company’s future goals
B. involvingemployees in assessing their own performance
C. highlightingwhat responsibilities employees have failed in
D. encouragingemployees to achieve better future performance
55. The general attitude of the authortoward Adams’ comic strip Dilbert is _____.
A. positive
B. negative
C. neutral
D. unclear
【答案与解析】
51. C
[定位]根据题干“his comic strip Dilbert”定位到文章第一段第一句。
[点睛]细节题。第一段第一句在形容年度绩效评估时用了“most frightening”和“weakening”两个词,C项符合题意,因此正确答案为C项。
[避错]A项错误,ScottAdams的漫画嘲讽的是职场,并没有具体指职员,故排除。漫画Dilbert只是利用一个女职员的遭遇借以嘲讽年度绩效评估,B项较片面,故排除。D项与题意无关,因此不选。
52. B
[定位]根据题干“drawbacks of annual performancereviews”定位到文章第二段第二句。
[点睛]细节题。B项文中未提及是年度绩效评估的缺点,因此正确答案为B项。
[避错]第二段第二句说到,年度绩效评估会制造隔阂,损伤士气,引发怒气和嫉妒,所以A、C、D都是年度绩效评估的缺点,因此排除。
53. A
[定位]根据题干“The word “ordeal” inParagraph 3”定位到文章第三段第二句。
[点睛]推测题。第三段首先对上文女职员的故事进行评价,接着第二句说提到,通过对行业分析得出的一些经验,这种“ordeal”是可以避免的,从第二段可知,女员工的那段经历是令她沮丧的,因此正确答案是A。
[避错]B、C、D项都只是女职员的故事当中的一些小部分,与题意不合,因此排除。
54. D
[定位]根据题干“to be effective, must focuson”定位到文章的最后一句。
[点睛]细节题。文章最后一句提到,简而言之,员工要把注意力放在来年取得更好的成绩上,而不是担心过去的个人档案里会有什么记录。因此,D项最贴近题意,故正确答案为D项。
[避错]A项文章提到过,但不符合题意,故排除。B项文中没有提及,故不选。C项不符合文中的“highlight strengths andweaknesses during the past year and discuss future responsibilities”,并没有说要强调过去失败的职责。因此排除。
55. A
[定位]根据题干“general attitude of theauthor”定位到文章第一段第二句。
[点睛]细节题。第一段首先简单介绍了Adams的漫画Dilbert,第二句接着提到了Adams的故事和漫画人物形象的塑造真实地反映了人们对于年度绩效评估的感受,有着严肃的一面,文中用的是“has its serious side”,由此可知,作者对Dilbert这部嘲讽年度绩效评估的态度是肯定的。因此,正确选项为A项。
[避错]文章通篇主要是围绕年度绩效评估讲的,与Adams的漫画Dilbert的主题相一致,态度非常清晰、肯定、支持,因此B、C、D项排除。
【全文翻译】
[51]系列漫画《Dilbert》的创作者斯科特·亚当斯认为,年度绩效评估是“每个职员的职业生涯中最令人害怕和最削弱精力的体验之一”。[55]亚当斯的故事和漫画形象对职场进行了嘲讽,不过他的那些关于职员对年度绩效评估的感觉的描述还是有其严肃意义一面的。尽管最近一项对437家公司的研究显示,有效的年度绩效评估可以提高利润,但是被抽查的公司中大多数的职员都讨厌它。
理论上讲,年度绩效评估是在一起工作的管理人员和一般职员之间的互动,这种互动是具有建设性的和积极意义的,这些管理人员和一般职员共同努力,争取实现业绩最大化并使他们的组织更加坚固。[52]但在现实中,年度绩效评估常常在职员中制造分歧,破坏士气,激起愤怒和引发嫉妒心理。因此,尽管进行年度绩效评估是为了提升业绩,但其效果却往往相反。一位在互联网公司工作的女程序员在她的年度绩效评估中非常吃惊地发现,她没有被提升,理由是她不“合群”。而得出这种判断的依据是什么呢?因为她在公司的合影里没有微笑。
尽管这件事可能听起来好像是直接来自于《Dilbert》漫画,但是它就是一位职员经历的真实写照。[53]通过采纳以下这些来自行业分析的意见和指导方针,这类的困境是能够得以避免的。
为了保证年度绩效评估积极而且有用,管理者和员工必须在年初就明确目标和期望值。
允许员工推荐一些与公司有关的人员放进绩效评估人员名单里,这些人员适合在年末为员工进行年度绩效评估,或许这是一种有效的方法。这些人可以是同事、供应商、甚至是客户。
目标应该是能够度量的但也是灵活的,而且每个人都应该赞成这项计划。
大约过9个月的时候,要检查员工工作的进度,管理人员可以给他们一次机会改正错误,并在这一年结束之前,为那些有需要的职员提供指导。
进行评估时,管理人员应该强调职员在过去一年里的优点和缺点,讨论下一年的职责,而不是进行惩罚或者责备。[54]简而言之,要是职员不用管他们的绩效评估时,他们应该关注来年如何做得更好,而不是担心在过去一年会有什么样的行为被记入档案。
Part ⅣCloze (15minutes,15 points)
Directions: In this part, there is a passage with 15 blanks. For each blankthere are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer for each blankand mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square bracketson your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
Advertising is aform of selling. For thousands of years there have been individuals who havetried to (56) _____ others to buy the food they have produced or the goods theyhave made or the services they can (57) _____.
But in the 19thcentury the mass production of goods (58) _____ the Industrial Revolution madeperson-to-person selling inefficient. The mass distribution of goods that (59)_____ the development of the railway and highway made person-to-person sellingtoo slow and expensive. At the same time, mass communication, first newspapersand magazines, then radio and television, made mass selling through (60) _____possible.
The objective ofany advertisement is to convince people that it is in their best (61) _____ totake the action the advertiser is recommending. The action (62) _____ be topurchase a product, use a service, vote for a political candidate, or even tojoin the Army.
Advertising as a(63) _____ developed first and most rapidly in the United States, the countrythat uses it to the greatest (64) _____. In 1980 advertising expenditures inthe U.S. exceeded 55 billion dollars, or (65) _____ 2 percent of the grossnational product. Canada spent about 1.2 percent of its gross national product (66)_____ advertising.
(67) _____advertising brings the economies of mass selling to the manufacturer, itproduces benefits for the consumer (68) _____. Some of those economies arepassed along to the purchaser so that the cost of a product sold primarilythrough advertising is usually far (69) _____ than one sold through personalsales- people. Advertising brings people immediate news about products thathave just come on the market. Finally, advertising (70) _____ for the programson commercial television and radio and for about two thirds of the cost ofpublishing magazines and newspapers.
56. A. request
B. oblige
C. persuade
D. affect
57. A. transfer
B. secure
C. perform
D. enjoy
58. A. dealing with
B. resultingfrom
C. leading to
D. going for
59. A. preceeded
B. followed
C. achieved
D. induced
60. A. advertising
B. marketing
C. salespeople
D. agents
61. A. profits
B. benefits
C. gains
D. interests
62. A. should
B. would
C. will
D. may
63. A. service
B. business
C. product
D. profession
64. A. extent
B. amount
C. possibility
D. utility
65. A. similarly
B. supposedly
C. accountably
D.approximately
66. A. with
B. at
C. on
D. into
67. A. Therefore
B. While
C. But
D. If
68. A. as usual
B. as well
C. as a result
D. as a rule
69. A. less
B. more
C. cheaper
D. dearer
70. A. works
B. calls
C. pays
D. looks
【答案与解析】
56. C 句意:几千年来,一直有人劝说别人去购买他们生产的食品或商品或者去享受他们提供的服务。persuade劝说,说服。request要求,请求。oblige迫使,强制;责成。affect影响。根据语境和搭配,正确答案为C项。
57. C perform service提供服务。transfer转移;调任。secure保证。enjoy欣赏,享受。根据语境和搭配,正确答案为C项。
58. B 句意:但是在19世纪,工业革命引发了大规模的商品生产,使人对人的商品销售效率变得很低。result from由……产生。deal with处理,安排。lead to通向;导致。go for努力获取;主张。根据语境和搭配,正确选项为B项。
59. B 句意:铁路和公路发展过后出现了商品大规模的派送,使人对人的商品销售变得又慢又费钱。precede在……之前。follow跟随。achieve完成。induce促使,引起。根据语境和搭配,正确选项为B项。
60. A 句意:同时,大众传媒,首先是报纸和杂志,然后是广播和电视,使通过广告进行大批销售成为了可能。advertising广告业。marketing营销。salespeople售货员。agent代理商。根据语境和搭配,正确选项为A项。
61. D 句意:任何广告的目的都是要使人们相信,如果按照广告上说的去做,他们会获得最大的好处。in their best interests是固定搭配,意思是“对他们最有好处”。profit利润。benefit利益。gain收获。根据语境和搭配,正确选项为D项。
62. D 句意:这些行动可能是去买一种商品,使用一种服务,给某个政治候选人投票甚至是参军。根据句意可知行为是不确定的,may可以表达这种内涵,其余的带有确切的含义,因此正确选项为D项。
63. B business此处指行业。该处的意思是:广告作为一个行业起源于美国,也在美国发展得最快,因为美国在最大的程度上利用了广告。根据语境和搭配,正确选项为B项。
64. A 句意同上。extent表示程度。to the greatest extent为固定搭配,意思是最大程度地。amount数量。possibility可能性。utility效用。因此正确选项为A项。
65. D 句意:1980年,美国在广告方面的花费超过了550亿美元,接近美国国民生产总值的2%。approximately近似。similarly同样地。supposedly按照推测。accountably可说明地。根据语境和搭配,正确选项为D项。
66. C 句意:加拿大在广告上的开销大约是其国民生产总值的1.2%。spent some money on是固定搭配,意思是在某事情上花了多少钱。只有C项正确,其他的选项不符合搭配,因此正确选项为C项。
67. B 句意:广告将大规模销售的经济利益带给生产厂商的同时,也给消费者带来了好处。while当……的时候。therefore因此。but但是。if如果。只有B符合此语境和搭配,因此正确选项为B项。
68. B 句意:同上。as well也。as usual照常。as a result结果。as a rule通常。根据语境和搭配,正确选项为B项。
69. A 句意:有些经济利益转给了消费者,这样主要通过广告销售的商品就比通过售货员卖出的商品要便宜得多。这一段是讲广告的好处,正因为通过广告销售商品才使商品更便宜,所以才说对消费者有好处。所以根据文章语境和搭配,正确选项为A项。
70. C 句意:最后要说的是,广告业为商业电视和广播里的节目支付费用,而且杂志和报纸所用开销的三分之二来自广告业。pay for支付。work for效劳。call for要求。look for寻找。根据语境和搭配,正确选项为C项。
【全文翻译】
广告是一种销售方式。几千年来,一直有人劝说别人购买他们生产的食品或商品或者他们提供的服务。
但是在19世纪,工业革命引发了大规模的商品生产,使人对人的商品销售效率变低。铁路和公路发展后,出现了商品大规模派送,使人对人的商品销售变得又慢又费钱。同时,大众传媒,首先是报纸和杂志,然后是广播和电视,使通过广告进行大批销售成为了可能。
任何广告的目的都是使人相信,如果按照广告上说的去做,他们会获得最大利益。这些行动可能是去买一种商品,使用一种服务,给某个政治候选人投票甚至是参军。
广告作为一个行业起源于美国,也在美国发展得最快,因为美国在最大程度上利用了广告。1980年,美国在广告方面的花费超过了550亿美元,接近美国国民生产总值的2%。加拿大在广告上的开销大约是其国民生产总值的1.2%。
广告一边将大规模销售的经济利益带给生产厂商,一边给消费者带来了好处。有些经济利益转给了消费者,这样主要通过广告销售的商品就比通过售货员卖出的商品要便宜得多。广告还为人们及时提供市场上最新产品的相关资讯。最后要说的是,商业电视节目和广播节目收取广告费,而且杂志和报纸所用开销的三分之二来自广告。
Part ⅤErrorDetection (10 minutes, 5points)
Directions: In this part, there are 10 sentences. Each sentence has 4underlined words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Identify the one underlinedword or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct.Mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets onyour machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
71. You’d better hurry up ifyou want to buy something because there’s hardly nothing left.
A. You’d better
B. if
C. something
D. nothing
【答案】D查看答案
【解析】句意:如果你想要买东西的话,最好快点,因为几乎不剩下什么东西了。nothing应改为anything,因为hardly和nothing都是表示否定的词,双重否定表肯定。hardly anything就有否定的意思,表示几乎没有。

72. A professional wine taster relies onsight, smell and tasting to determine the quality of a wine.
A. on
B. tasting
C. determine
D. a wine
【答案】B查看答案
【解析】句意:专业的品酒师是通过看、闻和品尝来判断葡萄酒质量的好坏。tasting应改为taste,因为sight,smell这里都是感觉的名词形式,在句子中充当on的宾语,所以应该用taste。

73. Sam used to live in Oklahoma, buthis company had him transfer to a better position in Georgia.
A. used to live
B. but
C. had himtransfer
D. to a better
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:Sam过去住在俄科拉荷马州,但是他的公司已把他调到佐治亚州任更好的职位。had him transfer应改为had him transferred,因为Sam是被调,因此him后的动词要用被动形式。

74. Not too many years ago, it wasan excited experience to travel 25 or 50 miles away fromhome.
A. Not
B. excited
C. to travel
D. from
【答案】B查看答案
【解析】句意:在不久以前,人们能够离家旅行25或50英里就是令人激动的事情了。该题中excited应改为现在分词exciting,表示使人激动的,用于修饰事物,excited表示激动的,用于修饰人。

75. It is perhaps not an exaggeration to say that we shallsoon be trusting our health, wealth, and happiness to elements with whomvery names the general public are familiar.
A. to say
B. be trusting
C. whom
D. are
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:也许可以毫不夸张地说,我们很快就会把健康、财富和幸福与公众熟悉的因素的名称联系起来。whom应该改为whose,因为whose此处是作定语修饰very names,whom主要用于修饰人。

76. China has established three nature reserves to protect therare species, covering a total of more than 600,000sq km, an area 40times of the size of Beijing.
A. naturereserves
B. the rarespecies
C. a total of
D. 40 times ofthe size
【答案】D查看答案
【解析】句意:中国已建立了三个自然保护区以保护珍稀物种,其总面积达60多万平方公里,相当于北京的40倍。40 times of the size应该去掉多余的of,固定用法,用来表示是什么的多少倍那么大。

77. During the dinner we had agreeable conversation—nothingextraordinary—but catching up on recent events of each other’slife.
A. agreeableconversation
B. nothingextraordinary
C. catching up
D. each other’slife
【答案】A查看答案
【解析】句意:晚餐期间他们进行了愉快的谈话,其实并没有谈什么特别的事情,只是聊了聊最近各自生活中发生的事而已。agreeable conversation前应加不定冠词an,表示一段谈话。

78. Because of the injured people laying on the groundbelow the windows, fire fighters were unable to place ground laddersup to the windows on the northeast side of the building.
A. injuredpeople
B. laying
C. unable to
D. up to thewindows
【答案】B查看答案
【解析】句意:因为伤员躺在窗子下方的地面上,消防队员不能把梯子放在楼房东北侧的窗下。此处laying应该改为lying。laying是lay的现在分词,表示“摆放”,而lie的现在分词应为lying,意思是“躺”,符合句意。

79. It aims to establish a minimumlist of standards that ought to include in all codes of conduct coveringlabor practices.
A. aims to
B. ought to
C. include
D. covering
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:其目的是要建立一个最低标准列表,这些标准被应包括在覆盖所有劳动实践的行为准则中。include应改为被动态be included,因为这些标准是被包括在那些行为准则中的。

80. I saw that the 1st update wasmade in January of 2002, so I wondered that the webmaster hadabandoned the site.
A. saw that
B. January of
C. wonderedthat
D. hadabandoned
【答案】C查看答案
【解析】句意:我注意到了第一次更新是在2002年1月做的,所以我想知道网管是否已经放弃了该网站。wonder that应改为wonder whether。wonder后面是一个表示疑问的句子,换为whether才能完整地表达这层意思。

Paper Two 试卷二
(60 minutes)
Part Ⅰ Translation(30 minutes, 20 points)
Section A
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese. Write yourtranslation on the ANSWER SHEET.
One of the chiefconcerns of wildlife management is the protection and improvement of thenatural habitat so that animals have enough food and water to survive. Wildlifemanagement involves care of the soil to produce good vegetation; it alsoinvolves care of plants, not only as a source of food, but also as protection.Animals need cover to hide from their natural enemies and to raise their youngsafely.
Just as cropsare harvested, wildlife too must sometimes be “harvested”. By allowing limitedhunting, good management can control certain species that threaten tooverpopulate their habitat.
【参考译文】
野生动物管理的一个主要任务是保护和改善它们的自然栖息地,为动物的生存提供充足的食物和水。野生动物管理包括保护水土,培育优良的植被;还包括保护植物,植物不仅为动物供应食物,而且为它们提供保护。动物需要躲避天敌的隐蔽处,安全地养育它们的幼仔。
就像庄稼需要收割一样,野生动物有时也需要“收割”。通过限量捕猎,良好的野生动物管理可以控制某些动物物种的数量,以免因其过度繁殖而造成栖息地供不应求。
【解析】
1. 第一句翻译时要注意名词与动词词性的相互转化。英文里的“protection”和“improvement”转化到中文里的时候就变成了动词形式的“保护”和“改善”,动词性的“survive”在中文里就变为了名词性的“生存”。
2. 第二句翻译时注意里面的分号表示并列,“care of”译为“保护”,“vegetation”译为“植被”。“not only ... but also”也表示并列关系,注意主语。
3. 第三句翻译时注意动词不定式的用法,“need”后面的两个“to”是并列关系,都是表示动物需要隐藏之地的目的。
4. 第四句翻译时要注意“just as”意思是“正如……一样”,还有两个“harvested”可以均翻译成“收割”,利用了中文中主动表示被动的含义。
5. 第五句要注意定语从句的翻译,这里的“that”指的是前面的“certain species”,“that”后面引导的定语从句起补充说明的作用,可以根据句子之间的逻辑关系调整一下原句的语序。

Section B
Directions: Translate the following passage into English. Write yourtranslation on the ANSWER SHEET.
随着社会的发展,人类对水的需求不断增加,但可供人类使用的水资源却急剧减少。水资源危机所带来的生态系统恶化等问题严重威胁着人类的生存。
如何更有效地利用水资源,推进水资源的可持续开发和保护,已经成为世界各国共同面对的紧迫问题。
【参考译文】
With thedevelopment of the society, human’s demand for water has kept increasing, butthe water resources human can use are decreasing rapidly. The problems causedby the water resources crisis, such as the deterioration of the ecosystem, areseverely threatening human’s very existence.
How to use thewater resources more effectively and promote their sustainable development and protectionhas become an urgent problem facing all the countries in the world.
【解析】
1. 第一句翻译时首先要注意“with”的用法,引导一个由名词短语构成的伴随状语。其次要注意翻译数量增加和减少的相应表达。“不断增加”译文为“has kept increasing”,“急剧减少”译为“decreasing rapidly”。
2. 第二句翻译时注意汉译英的过程中名词定语过长时应当处理成后置定语,如“水资源危机所带来的生态系统恶化等问题”译成“The problems caused by thewater resources crisis”,处理成后置定语之前要理清各部分的逻辑关系。
3. 第三句翻译时要注意中文里几个并列的动词短语如何转变为英文里的主语,如“如何更有效地利用水资源,推进水资源的可持续开发和保护”译成“How to use the water resourcesmore effectively and promote their sustainable development and protection”,原文里的并列动词短语就变成了译文里并列的不定式。
Part Ⅱ Writing (30 minutes, 15 points)
Directions: In this part, you are to write a composition of no less than150 words about “College Graduates Work as VillageOfficials”. You should write according to the outline given below.Remember to write clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.
Some college graduates choose to work asvillage officials.
1. Do you think it is a good idea?
2. What can they offer the countryside?
3. What can they gain from their villagepositions?
【参考范文】
College Graduates Work as Village Officials
These days, itis common and usual to see that some college graduates choose to work asvillage officials. As far as I am concerned, this is a good thing for variousreasons as follows.
To begin with,due to the increase of college student enrollment and the influence of theglobal economic crisis, more and more college graduates are entering the marketand competing for fewer and fewer jobs. Many graduates are left jobless in thissevere situation. Therefore, the opportunities of working as village officialshelp improve the employment of college graduates and advance the development ofsociety. What’s more, working as village officials gives college studentsexcellent opportunities of experiencing the society immediately after theirgraduation and help them to grow more mature and get more adapted to thesociety.
On the otherhand, college students, who have received education for about twenty years,have accumulated a great deal of knowledge, with which they can play a better rolein society. Many village officials are elected by villagers within themselvesas a rule. The village officials are elected because they are respected andtrusted by the local people and are comparatively more competent in leading thewhole village. However, they still have little knowledge and can’t easily keepabreast of the times. With a college degree, graduates are much better equippedwith relevant and useful knowledge and are more closely connected with themodern world. Comparatively speaking, the college graduates have much widerhorizon than the locally-elected officials. With rich knowledge and broadenedhorizon, college students will instill a new life to some of the backwardvillages.
All in all, itis a good policy for college graduates to work as village officials. This willbring benefits not only to the graduates themselves, but also to the society atlarge.

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