本站小编 Free考研 2019-10-03 (0)次
摘要 : 目录封面内容简介目录2010年中山大学国际翻译学院211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解2011年中山大学国际翻译学院211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解2012年中山大学国际翻译学院211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解2013年中山大学国际翻译学院211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解2014年中山大学国际翻译学院2...
目录 封面
内容简介 本书收录了中山大学国际翻译学院“翻译硕士英语”历年考研真题(具体参见本书目录),且真题均提供参考答案及解析。


There arethirty sentences in this section. Beneath each sentence there are four words orphrases marked A, B, C and D. Please choose the correct answer that bestcompletes the sentence and mark your answers on theanswer sheet.
1. _____ in the past, at the moment it is afavorite choice for wedding gown.
A. Unpopular hasas white been
B. Unpopular aswhite has been
C. Unpopular hasbeen as white
D. White hasbeen as unpopular

2. What the government should do urgentlyis to take actions to _____ the economy.
A. brook
B. blush
C. brood
D. boost

3. Windstorms have recently established arecord which meteorologists hope will not be equaled for many years _____.
A. that willcome
B. to come
C. that arecoming
D. coming

4. We expect Mr. Smith will _____ Class Onewhen Miss White retires.
A. take to
B. take up
C. take off
D. take over
【解析】句意:我们期望白老师退休后史密斯先生将接管一班。takeover接管,接任(职位)。taketo开始从事;喜欢。take up占用(时间)。take off(飞机)起飞。

5. Tom hardly seems middle-aged, _____ old.
A. let alone
B. less likely
C. much worse
D. all else

6. All was darkness _____ an occasionalglimmer in the distance.
A. except
B. no more than
C. besides
D. except for
【解析】句意:一片漆黑,除了远处偶尔有一点微光。except for除……以外,后面接名词。no more than仅仅,只有。besides除……,还有。except虽然也可以做“除……以外”来讲,但强调所排除的“不包括在内”,一般表示同类之间的关系;except for也表示“除……以外”,指对某种基本情况进行具体的细节方面的修正,后接词与主语不属同类。

7. The prospect of increased prices hasalready _____ worries.
A. irritated
B. provoked
C. inspired
D. hoisted

8. Her father is so deaf that he has to usea hearing_____.
A. aid
B. help
C. support
D. tool
【解析】句意:她父亲的听力如此差,以至于他不得不用听力助听器。ahearing aid助听器,固定词组。

9. From the cheers and shouts of _____, Iguessed that she was winning the race.
A. stimulus
B. heartening
C. urging
D. encouragement

10. Although the model looks good on thesurface, it will not bear close _____.
A. temperament
B. scrutiny
C. contamination
D. symmetry

11. It is the first book of this kind _____I’ve ever read.
A. which
B. that
C. what
D. when

12. The kid is reaching _____ a bottle fromthe shelf when I came in.
A. to
B. for
C. at
D. in
【解析】句意:当我进来时,小孩正伸手拿书架上的瓶子。reach for伸手去拿。reach to达到。reach一般不与“in”和“at”搭配使用。

13. The police chief announced that thecase would soon be inquired _____.
A. into
B. of
C. after
D. about

14. Her grandfather accidentally _____ fireto the house.
A. put
B. set
C. took
D. got
【解析】句意:很意外,他祖父把房子点燃了。set fire to点燃,放火烧,是固定词组。

15. _____ can help but be fascinated by theworld into which he is taken by science fiction.
A. Anybody
B. Everybody
C. Somebody
D. Nobody
【解析】句意:科幻小说带他进入了另外一个世界,每个人都情不自禁地被这个世界所深深吸引。nobody can help but相当于everybody can’t help but,意思为“大家都情不自禁地……”。

16. The _____ outcome of the contest variesfrom moment to moment.
A. apt
B. likely
C. liable
D. prone

17. Anyone going into a bar, whether they _____ suspicion or not,will be asked to take a test, which highlights any drug use.
A. arise
B. rise
C. raise
D. arouse

18. His accent is _____ to people in thatsmall town.
A. typical
B. peculiar
C. characteristic
D. special
【解析】句意:他的口音是那个小镇上的人们所特有的。be peculiarto特有的,独具的。betypical of典型的。becharacteristic of特有的,独特的。special专门的。

19. Stealing a book or a toy is a minor_____ which, if left uncorrected, will get worse.
A. offense
B. guilt
C. crime
D. sin
【解析】句意:偷书或偷玩具是一种未成年人犯罪,如果不被纠正,将来将会酿成大错。minor crime未成年人犯罪,固定词组。offense罪过,犯法(行为)。guilt犯罪;过失。sin罪,罪孽。

20. This book comes as a _____ to him wholearns a lot from it.
A. revelation
B. replacement
C. resolution
D. revolution

21. He managed to save _____ he could totend the homeless boy,
A. what littletime
B. so littletime
C. such littletime
D. how littletime
【解析】句意:他努力节省他仅有的一点时间来照顾这个无家可归的男孩。“what little+n.”表示“所仅有的……”,what后面接名词。

22. After reviewing the troops, _____ visiting general commentedthat he had finally seen the kind of _____ soldier that the nation needs.
A. a; a
B. a; the
C. the; /
D. the; the
【解析】句意:检阅了军队之后,将军评论说他已从他们身上看到了国家所需的那种战士。visiting general在这里做主语,并且是特指那个将军,所以用定冠词。“the kind of+名词”表示“……这一类的”,名词前不加冠词,所以选C项。

23. I never think of fall _____ I think ofthe hardships I have experienced when I was a child.
A. that
B. when
C. but
D. and

24. Within decades, PAN-type research will transform the Internetinto the Life Net, a comprehensive _____ environment for human habitation.
A. sensory
B. sensible
C. sensitive
D. sensational

25. Outside people were cheering and awaiting the arrival of the NewYear while inside Harry was lying severely ill in bed feeling thoroughly _____.
A. ignoble
B. compassionate
C. unconscious
D. wretched

26. For most companies and factories, thefewer the injury _____, the better their workman’s insurance rate.
A. proclamations
B. confirms
C. declarations
D. claims
【解析】句意:对大部分公司或工厂而言,伤害索赔越少,员工的保险费率就越高。injury claim伤害索赔,是固定词组。proclamation宣布,公布。confirm证实,确认。declaration宣布,宣告。

27. I am _____ grateful for the manykindnesses you have shown my son.
A. excessively
B. much
C. certainly
D. exceedingly

28. It was requested that all of the equipment_____ in the agreed time.
A. erected
B. be erected
C. would beerected
D. will beerected
【解析】句意:所有的设备要求在议定时间安装好。“It was requested that ...”中,从句要用虚拟语气“should+动词原形”,should可以省略。

29. We will be losing money this yearunless that new economic plan of yours _____ miracle.
A. is working
B. works
C. will beworking
D. worked
【解析】句意:除非你的新经济规划能创造奇迹,否则我们就要遭受经济损失了。work造成,引起,激起。unless 引导的条件从句中,一般用一般现在时表示将来时。

30. Within two hours his complexion _____colour and his limbs became warm.
A. took on
B. took to
C. took up
D. took down
【解析】句意:在两个小时内,他的面色呈现血色,手臂变得有温度了。takeon呈现。take to开始从事;喜欢。take up占用。take down拒绝。

In thissection there are five reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choicequestions and 5 short-answer questions. Please read the passages and then writeyour answers on the answer sheet.

Children asyoung as four will study Shakespeare in a project being launched today by theRoyal Shakespeare Company.
The RSC isholding its first national conference for primary school teachers to encouragethem to use the Bard’s plays imaginatively in the classroom from receptionclasses onwards. The conference will be told that they should learn howShakespearian characters like Puck in A Midsummer Night’s Dream are “jollycharacters” and how to write about them.
At present, thenational curriculum does not require pupils to approach Shakespeare untilsecondary school. All it says is that pupils should study “texts drawn from avariety of cultures and traditions” and “myths, legends and traditionalstories”.
However,educationists at the RSC believe children will gain a better appreciation ofShakespeare if they are introduced to him at a much younger age. “Even veryyoung children can enjoy Shakespeare’s plays,” said Mary Johnson, head of thelearning department. “It is just a question of pitching it for the age group.Even reception classes and key stage one pupils (five-to-seven-year-olds) canenjoy his stories. “For instance, if you build up Puck as a character whoskips, children of that age can enjoy the character. They can be inspired byPuck and they could even start writing about him at that age.”
It is the RSC’sbelief that building the Bard up as a fun playwright in primary school couldcounter some of the negative images conjured up about teaching Shakespeare insecondary schools. Then, pupils have to concentrate on scenes from the plays toanswer questions for compulsory English national-curriculum tests for 14-year-olds.Critics of the tests have complained that pupils no longer have the time tostudy or read the whole play—and therefore lose interest in Shakespeare.
However, Ms.Johnson is encouraging teachers to present 20-minute versions of the plays—aclassroom version of the Reduced Shakespeare Company’s Complete Works ofShakespeare (Abridged) which told his 37 plays in 97 minutes—to give pupils aflavour of the whole drama.
The RSC’sventure coincides with a call for schools to allow pupils to be more creativein writing about Shakespeare. Professor Kate McLuskie, the new director of theUniversity of Birmingham’s Shakespeare Institute—also based in Stratford—saidit was time to get away from the idea that there was “a right answer” to anyquestion about Shakespeare. Her first foray into the world of Shakespeare wasto berate him as a misogynist in a 1985 essay but she now insists this shouldnot be interpreted as a criticism of his works—although she admits: “I probablywouldn’t have written it quite the same way if I had been writing it now. Whatwe should be doing is making sure that someone is getting something out ofShakespeare,” she said. “People are very scared about getting the right answer.I know it’s difficult but I don’t care if they come up with a right answer thatI can agree with about Shakespeare.”
31. What is this passage mainly concernedwith?
A. How to givepupils a flavor of Shakespeare drama.
B. The fun ofreading Shakespeare.
C. RSC projectwill teach children how to write on Shakespeare.
D. RSC projectwill help four-year-old children find the fun in Shakespeare.
32. What’s Puck’s characteristic accordingto your understanding of the passage?
A. Rude, rushand impolite.
B. Happy,interesting and full of fun.
C. Dull, absurdand ridiculous.
D. Shrewd,cunning and tricky.
33. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
A. The RSCinsists on teaching Shakespeare from the secondary school.
B. Pupilsshould study “texts drawn from a variety of cultures and traditions” required bythe national curriculum.
C. The nationalcurriculum does not require pupils to approach Shakespeare until secondaryschool now.
D. RSC believes children will gain a better appreciation ofShakespeare if they are introduced to him at a much younger age.
34. Ms. Johnson encourages teachers topresent 20-minute versions of the plays in order to _____.
A. introducethem into the world of Shakespeare
B. deal withthe final examination on Shakespeare
C. give pupilsa flavour of the whole drama
D. strengthenthe students with the knowledge of Shakespeare
35. Which of the following is NOT true according to the last paragraph?
A. ProfessorKate McLuskie once scolded Shakespeare in her essay.
B. ProfessorKate McLuskie insisted on her view on Shakespeare till now.
C. ProfessorKate McLuskie has changed her idea now.
D. Ms. Kate thinks it was time to get away from the idea that therewas “a right answer” to any question about Shakespeare.
31. A 主旨大意题。纵观全文,文章都在讲RSC如何让孩子们更好学习莎士比亚作品的事,A项表述更全面。C,D只是其中一部分内容,不具有概括性。
32. B 细节题。文中第二段第二句提到,这次会议将会让学校的老师知道莎士比亚塑造的人物,如《第十二夜》中的Puck,都是一些有趣的人物,并让他们知道该如何描述这些人物。可见,文章认为Puck这个人物是有趣的。所以选B项。
33. A 第四段第一句提到,RSC的教育家们认为如果在孩子们还很小的时就让他们了解莎士比亚,他们会对莎士比亚的作品有更好的理解。可见,RSC是赞成早点教孩子们莎士比亚的作品的,而不是等孩子们到了初中才开始接触,所以A项的表述是错误的。
34. C 第六段最后一句说到,“to give pupils aflavour of the whole drama”,可见,是为了让孩子们完整全面地了解戏剧,所以选项C正确。
35. B 此题可用排除法。从最后一段第三句“Her first foray intothe world of Shakespeare was to berate him as a misogynist ... but she nowinsists this should not be interpreted as a criticism of his works”可看出,她曾痛斥莎士比亚,但她现在认为那并不是对其作品的批评,所以A,C正确,B项错误。第二句提到“it was time to get away from the idea that therewas ‘a right answer’ to any question about Shakespeare”可见,D也正确。

Some believethat in the age of identikit computer games, mass entertainment and conformityon the supermarket shelves, truly inspired thinking has gone out of the window.But, there are others who hold the view that there is still plenty of scope forinnovation, lateral thought and creative solutions. Despite the standardizationof modern life, there is an unabated appetite for great ideas, visionarythinking and inspired debate. In the first of a series of monthly debates oncontemporary issues, we ask two original thinkers to discuss the nature ofcreativity. Here is the first one.
Yes. Absolutely.Since I started working as an inventor 10 or 12 years ago, I’ve seen a bigchange in attitudes to creativity and invention. Back then, there was hardlyany support for inventors, apart from the national organization the Instituteof Patentees and Inventors. Today, there are lots of little inventors’ clubspopping up all over the place, my last count was 19 nationally and growing.These non-profit clubs, run by inventors for inventors, are an indication thatpeople are once again interested in invention.
I’ve been aproject leader, a croupier, an IT consultant and I’ve written a motor mandrel.I spent my teens under a 1950s two-tone Riley RME ear, learning to put ittogether. Back in the Sixties, kids like me were always out doing things,making go-karts, riding bicycles or exploring. We learned to overcomechallenges and solve problems. We weren’t just sitting at a PlayStation, likemany kids do today.
But I think, andhope, things are shifting back. There’s a lot more internal in design and creativityand such talents are getting a much higher profile in the media. It’s evidentwith TV programmes such as Channel 4’s Scrapheap Challenge or BBC2’s TheApprentice and Dragon’s Den, where people are given a task to solve or face thechallenge of selling their idea to a panel.
And, thankfully,the image of the mad scientist with electrified hair working in the garden shedis long gone— although, there are still a few exceptions!
That’s not tosay there aren’t problems. With the decline in manufacturing we are losing theability to know how to make things. There’s a real skills gap developing. In myopinion, the Government does little or nothing to help innovation at thelone-inventor or small or medium enterprise level. I would love to see moremoney spent on teaching our school kids how to be inventive. But, despiteeverything, if you have a good idea and real determination, you can still dovery well.
My ownspecialist area is packaging closures—almost every product needs it. I got theidea for Squeezeopen after looking at an old tin of boot polish when my mothercomplained she couldn’t get the lid off. If you can do something cheaper,better, and you are 100 percent committed, there is a chance it will be asuccess.
I see afantastic amount of innovation and opportunities out there. People don’t realizehow much is going on. New materials are coming out all the time and the spaceprogramme and scientific research are producing a variety of spin-offs.Innovation doesn’t have to be high-tech: creativity and inventing is aboutfinding the right solution to a problem, whatever it is. There’s a lot oftalent out there and, thankfully, some of the more progressive companies aresuddenly realizing they don’t want to miss out—it’s an exciting time.
36. What is the debate concerned with?
A. What shouldwe do to inspire people’s creativity?
B. Will people’sinvention and inspiration be exhausted in the future?
C. Is therestill a future for invention and inspiration?
D. Who will bewinner of the future technology?
37. According to the opinion of theinterviewer, _____.
A. the futurefor invention depends
B. there isstill a future for invention and inspiration
C. there is nofuture for invention and inspiration in modern society
D. the futurefor invention and inspiration is unclear
38. Which of the following is NOT true about the kids in the sixties?
A. Out doingthings, making go-karts.
B. Ridingbicycle and exploring.
C. Sittingbefore computers to play games.
D. Like toovercome challenges and solve problems.
39. Which of the following is thesuggestion of the interviewer to the problem?
A. Thegovernment should spend more money helping innovation.
B. The kidsshould cultivate their love of science and invention.
C. Moreinventors’ clubs should be set up.
D. Inventioncourses are necessary to children.
40. What’s the central idea of the lastparagraph?
A. We shouldmiss out the exciting time.
B. A variety ofspin-offs ate produced by the scientific research.
C. The natureof innovation.
D. The natureof talent.
36. C 从第一段的前两句可知,一些人认为在当今这个电脑游戏,大众传媒以及超市集聚的时代,真正的创新思维已经不存在了。但也有人认为仍有很大的创新空间。可见,争论的问题主要是是否还有进一步创新与发明创造的空间。选项C正确。
37. B 第二段最后一句提到“These non-profitclubs, run by inventors for inventors, are an indication that people are onceagain interested in invention.”这个人认为那些小型非盈利性质的俱乐部正暗示出人们又一次地对创新发明燃起兴趣。可见,其认为发明创新还是仍有发展空间的。所以选B。
38. C 第三段第三句提到“Back in the Sixties,kids like me were always out doing things, making go-karts, riding bicycles orexploring. We learned to overcome challenges and solve problems.”可见,A,B,D都有说到,所以选C项。
39. A 第六段倒数第二局提到“I would love to seemore money spent on teaching our school kids how to be inventive.”可见,这个人期望政府在教育孩子创新发明方面加大投资,所以选A。
40. C 段落大意题。文中讲到创新不一定非得是高科技的,只要是针对问题找到的解决办法都可称作发明创新,这就是发明创新的本质所在。所以选C。

For theexecutive producer of a network nightly news programme, the workday oftenbegins at midnight as mine did during seven years with ABC’s evening newscast.The first order of business was a call to the assignment desk for a pre-bedtimerundown of latest developments.
The assignmentdesk operates 24 hours a day, staffed by editors who move crews, correspondentsand equipment to the scene of events. Assignment-desk editors ate logisticsexperts; they have to know plane schedules, satellite availability, and whom toget in touch with at local stations and overseas broadcasting systems. They arerequired to assess stories as they break on the wire services—sometimes evenbefore they do and to decide how much effort to make to cover those stories.
When the UnitedStates was going to appeal to arms against Iraq, the number of correspondentsand crews was constantly evaluated. Based on reports from the field and alsoupon the skilled judgments of desk editors in New York City, the right numberof personnel was kept on the alert. The rest were allowed to continue workingthroughout the world, in America and Iraq ready to move but not tied down byfalse alarms.
The studio staffof ABC’s “World News Tonight” assembles at 9 a.m. to prepare for the 6:30 “air”p.m. deadline. Overnight dispatches from outlying bureaus and press servicesare read. There are phone conversations with the broadcast’s staff producers indomestic bureaus and with the London bureau senior producer, who coordinatesoverseas coverage. A pattern emerges for the day’s news, a pattern outlined inthe executive producer’s first lineup. The lineup tells the staff what storiesare scheduled; what the priorities are for processing film of editing tape;what scripts need to be written; what commercials ate scheduled; how long storiesshould run and in what order. Without a lineup, there would be chaos.
Each story’srelative value in dollars and cents must be continually assessed by theexecutive producer. Cutting back satellite booking to save money might meanthat an explanation delivered by an anchor person will replace actual photos ofan event. A decline in live coverage could send viewers away and drive ratingsdown, but there is not enough money to do everything. So decisions must be madeand made rapidly—because delay can mean a missed connection for shipping tapeor access to a satellite blocked by a competitor.
The broadcaststhemselves require pacing and style. The audience has to be allowed to breathebetween periods of intense excitement. A vivid pictorial report followed byless exacting materials allows the viewer to reflect on information that hasjust flashed by. Frequent switches from one anchor to another or from one filmor tape report to another create a sense of forward movement. Ideally, leadingand lags to stories are worked out with field correspondents, enabling them tofit their reports into the programme’s narrative flow so the audience’sattention does not wander and more substance is absorbed.
Scripts areconstantly rewritten to blend well with incoming pictures. Good copy is crisp,informative. Our rule: the fewer words the better. If a picture can do thework, let it.
41. What does the word “rundown” (Para.1)possibly mean?
A. Therehearsal of tomorrow’s programme.
B. A workingreport or summary to his superior or head.
C. Anexplanation of the programme.
D. Preparationfor the programme.
42. What is the function of the thirdparagraph?
A. Toillustrate the important role and function of the assignment desk.
B. To give us abrief introduction of their working conditions.
C. To exemplifythe cooperation of all sections in the company.
D. To emphasizethe mission of the correspondents.
43. All the following can be employed tomake the report more effective EXCEPT _____.
A. providingmore vivid pictures and details
B. changing thestyle to cater for the audience’s appetite
C. more livecoverage to replace the linguistic explanation
D. intervalshifts of the materials of the coverage
44. What will the executive producer mostlybe concerned with?
A. The cost andthe effect.
B. The truth ofthe coverage.
C. The audience’sinterest.
D. The form ofthe coverage.
45. What is the text mainly about?
A. Ways to cutdown the cost of the coverage,
B. How to makethe report more attractive.
C. To describethe work of the executive producer.
D. To introducethe style and features of the news programme.
41. B 词义推断题。监制人工作的第一项就是要听一个最近工作进展情况的汇报。选项B正确。
42. A 文中第二段讲assignment desk的作用以及assignment-desk editors要做的事,第三段就举美国的例子来说明这一点,可见选项A正确。
43. B 本题可用排除法。倒数第二段第二句提到“A vivid pictorialreport followed by less exacting ...”可见插入图片是有效的,排除A项。第五段第三句提到“A decline in live coverage could send viewers awayand drive ratings down”现场报道的减少可能会使收视率降低,这也就从反面说明现场报道而不只是口头解释会更有效,故排除C项。倒数第二段第四句提到“Frequent switchesfrom one anchor to another or from one film or tape report to another create asense of forward movement.”频繁地从一个节目跳到另一个会产生一种“前向运动”的感觉。这也从反面说明报道中间隔的休息也是必要的,选项D也可排除。所以选B。
44. D 细节题。第四段的倒数第三句提到“A pattern emergesfor the day’s news, a pattern outlined in the executive producer’s firstlineup.”新闻的形式是监制人最在乎的事。pattern与form同义。所以选D。
45. C 第一段第一句提到“监制人的工作从半夜就要开始”,然后下文又具体介绍了监制人的职责,所以文章主要是描述了监制人的工作情况,选C。

It’s nothing newthat English use is on the rise around the world, especially in businesscircles. This also happens in France, the headquarters of the global battleagainst American cultural hegemony. If French guys are giving in to English,something really big must be going on. And something big is going on.
Partly, it’sthat American hegemony. Didier Benchimol, CEO of a French e-commerce softwarecompany, feels compelled to speak English perfectly because the Internetsoftware business is dominated by Americans. He and other French businessmenalso have to speak, English because they want to get their message out toAmerican investors, possessors of the world’s deepest pockets.
The triumph ofEnglish in France and elsewhere in Europe, however, may rest on something moreenduring. As they become entwined with each other politically and economically,Europeans need a way to talk to one another and to the rest of the world. Andfor a number of reasons, they’ve decided upon English as their common tongue.
So when Germanchemical and pharmaceutical company Hoechst merged with French competitorRhone-Poulenc last year, the companies chose the vaguely Latinate Aventis asthe new company name—and settled on English as the company’s common language.When monetary policymakers from around Europe began meeting at the EuropeanCentral Bank in Frankfurt last year to set interest rates for the new Euroland,they held their deliberations in English. Even the European Commission, with 11official languages and a traditionally French-spiriting bureaucracy,effectively switched over to English as its working language last year.
How did thishappen? One school attributes English’s great success to the sheer weight ofits merit. It’s a Germanic language, brought to Britain around the fifthcentury A.D. During the four centuries of French-speaking rule that followedNorman Conquest of 1066, the language morphed into something else entirely.French words were added wholesale, and most of the complications of Germanicgrammar were shed while few of the complications of French were added. Theresult is a language with a huge vocabulary and a simple grammar that canexpress most things more efficiently than either of its parents. What’s more,English has remained ungoverned and open to change—foreign words, coinages, andgrammatical shifts—in a way that French, ruled by the purist AcadémieFrancaise, has not.
So it’s a swelllanguage, especially for business. But the rise of English over the past fewcenturies clearly owes at least as much to history and economies as to thelanguage’s ability to economically express the concept win-win. What happenedis that the competition—first Latin, then French, then, briefly, German—fadedwith the waning of the political, economic, and military fortunes of,respectively, the Catholic Church, France, and Germany. All along, English wasincreasing in importance: Britain was the birthplace of the IndustrialRevolution, and London the world’s most important financial center, which madeEnglish a key language for business. England’s colonies around the world alsomade it the language with the most global reach. And as that former colony theU.S. rose to the status of the world’s preeminent political, economic, military,and cultural power, English became the obvious second language to learn.
In the 1990smore and more Europeans found themselves forced to use English. The lastgeneration of business and government leaders who hadn’t studied English inschool was leaving the stage. The European Community was adding new members andevolving from a paper-shuffling club into a serious regional government thatwould need a single common language if it were ever to get anything done.Meanwhile, economic barriers between European nations have been disappearing,meaning that more and more companies are beginning to look at the wholecontinent as their domestic market. And then the Internet came along.
The Net had twobig impacts. One was that it was an exciting, potentially lucrative newindustry that had its roots in the U.S., so if you wanted to get in on it, youhad to speak some English. The other was that by surfing the Web, Europeans whohad previously encountered English only in school and in pop songs were nowcoming into contact with it daily.
None of thismeans English has taken over European life. According to the European Union,47% of Western Europeans (including the British and Irish) speak English wellenough to carry on a conversation. That’s a lot more than those who can speakGerman (32%) or French (28%), but it still means more Europeans don’t speak thelanguage. If you want to sell shampoo or cell phones, you have to do it inFrench or German or Spanish or Greek. Even the U.S. and British media companiesthat stand to benefit most from the spread of English have been hedging theirbets—CNN broadcasts in Spanish; the Financial Times has recently launched adaily German-language edition.
But just look atwho speaks English: 77% of Western European college student, 69% of managers,and 65% of those aged 15 to 24. In the secondary schools of the European Union’snon-English-speaking countries, 91% of students study English, all of whichmeans that the transition to English as the language of European business hasn’tbeen all that traumatic, and it’s only going to get easier in the future.
46. In the author’s opinion, what reallyunderlies the rising status of English in France and Europe is _____.
A. Americandominance in the Internet software business
B. a practicalneed for effective communication among Europeans
C. Europeans’eagerness to do business with American businessmen
D. the recenttrend for foreign companies to merge with each other
47. Europeans began to favour English forall the following reasons EXCEPT its _____.
A. inherentlinguistic properties
B. associationwith the business world
C. links withthe United States
D. disassociationfrom political changes
48. Which of the following statementsforecasts the continuous rise of English in the future?
A. About halfof Western Europeans are now proficient in English.
B. U.S. andBritish media companies are operating in Western Europe.
C. Mostsecondary school students in Europe study English.
D. MostEuropeans continue to use their own language.
49. The passage has discussed the rise inEnglish use on the Continent from the following perspectives EXCEPT _____.
A. economics
B. nationalsecurity
C. theemergence of the Internet
D. the changingfunctions of the European Community
50. The passage mainly examines the factorsrelated to _____.
A. the risingstatus of English in Europe
B. Englishlearning in non-English-speaking E.U. nations
C. thepreference for English by European businessmen
D. the switchfrom French to English in the European Commission
46. B 第三段第二句提到“…Europeans need away to talk to one another and to the rest of the world.”欧洲人需要一种方式进行彼此间及与其他国家的交流。所以B正确。
47. D 本题可用排除法。第五段最后一句提到“What’s more, Englishhas remained ungoverned and open to change ...”可见,英语本身比法语有语言上的优势,排除A项。第六段倒数第三句“…which made Englisha key language for business”可见商业也是英语兴起的一个原因,故排除B项。第二段以一句提到“Partly, it’s that American hegemony.”可见,英语的兴起与美国有关系,故排除C项。
48. C 文中最后一段提到“In the secondaryschools of the European Union’s non-English-speaking countries, 91% of studentsstudy English, …in the future.”可从中看出,欧洲的大部分中学生在学习英语,这也预示着未来英语的继续盛行。C项正确。
49. B 本题可用排除法。第六段倒数第三句“…which made Englisha key language for business”可见商业经济也是英语兴起的一个原因,排除A。倒数第四段第三句提到“European Community”带来的影响,排除D。倒数第三段提到“net”的影响,故排除C。
50. A 主旨大意题。文中从第二段起就开始依次分析了英语在欧洲兴起的经济、语言、社会等各方面的因素,所以A项正确。

The role ofgovernments in environmental management is difficult but inescapable.Sometimes, the state tries to manage the resources it owns, and does so badly.Often, however, governments act in an even more harmful way. They actuallysubsidise the exploitation and consumption of natural resources. A whole rangeof policies, from farm-price support to protection for coal-mining, doenvironmental damage and (often) make no economic sense. Scrapping them offersa two-fold bonus: a cleaner environment and a more efficient economy. Growthand environmentalism can actually go hand in hand, if politicians have thecourage to confront the vested interest that subsidies create.
No activityaffects more of the earth’s surface than farming. It shapes a third of theplanet’s land area, not counting Antarctica, and the proportion is rising.World food output per head has risen by 4 per cent between the 1970s and 1980smainly as a result of increases in yields from land already in cultivation, butalso because more land has been brought under the plough.
All theseactivities may have damaging environmental impacts. For example, land clearingfor agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation; chemicalfertilizers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; more intensivefarming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion;and the spread of monoculture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops havebeen accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants whichmight have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future. Soilerosion threatens the productivity of land in both rich and poor countries. TheUnited States, where the most careful measurements have been done, discoveredin 1982 that about one-fifth of its farmland was losing topsoil at a ratelikely to diminish the soil’s productivity. The country subsequently embarkedupon a programme to convert 11 percent of its cropped land to meadow or forest.Topsoil in India and China is vanishing much faster than in America.
Governmentpolicies have frequently compounded the environmental damage that farming cancause. In the rich countries, subsidies for growing crops and price supportsfor farm output drive up the price of land. In the late 1990s and early 1990ssome efforts were made to reduce farm subsidies. The most dramatic example wasthat of New Zealand, which scrapped most farm support in 1984. A study of theenvironmental effects, conducted in 1993, found that the end of fertilizersubsidies had been followed by a fall in fertilizer use (a fall compounded bythe decline in world commodity prices, which cut farm incomes). The removal ofsubsidies also stopped land-clearing and overstocking, which in the past hadbeen the principal causes of erosion. Farms began to diversify. The one kind ofsubsidy whose removal appeared to have been bad for the environment was thesubsidy to manage soil erosion.
In lessenlightened countries, and in the European Union, the trend has been to reducerather than eliminate subsidies, and to introduce new payments to encouragefarmers to treat their land in environmentally friendlier ways, or to leave itfallow. It may sound strange but such payments need to be higher than theexisting incentives for farmers to grow food crops. Farmers, however, dislikebeing paid to do nothing. In several countries they have become interested inthe possibility of using fuel produced from crop residues either as areplacement for petrol (as ethanol) or as fuel for power stations (as biomass).Such fuels produce far less carbon dioxide than coal or oil, and absorb carbondioxide as they grow. They are therefore less likely to contribute to thegreenhouse effect. But they are rarely competitive with fossil fuels unlesssubsidised and growing them does no less environmental harm than other crops.
A result of theUruguay Round of world trade negotiations is likely to be a reduction of 36percent in the average levels of farm subsidies paid by the rich countries in 1986-1990.Some of the world’s food production will move from Western Europe to regionswhere subsidies are lower or nonexistent, such as the former communistcountries and parts of the developing world. Some environmentalists worry aboutthis outcome. It will undoubtedly mean more pressure to convert natural habitatinto farmland. But it will also have many desirable environmental effects. Theintensity of farming in the rich world should decline, and the use of chemicalinputs will diminish. Crops are more likely to be grown in the environments towhich they are naturally suited. And more farmers in poor countries will havethe money and the incentive to manage their land in ways that are sustainablein the long run. That is important. To feed an increasingly hungry world,farmers need every incentive to use their soil and water effectively andefficiently.
51. What did the research completed in 1982find?
【答案】The research found that about one-fifth of United States’ farmlandwas losing topsoil at a rate likely to diminish the soil’s productivity.查看答案

52. What increased in New Zealand after1984?
【答案】The removal of subsidies.查看答案

53. Why does the author refer to some richcountries as being “less enlightened” than New Zealand?
【答案】Because in these countries, rather than eliminate subsides, theyreduce or introduce new payments to encourage farmers to treat their land inenvironmentally friendlier ways, or to leave it fallow. However, such paymentsneed to be higher than the existing incentives for farmers to grow food crops.Farmers, however, dislike being paid to do nothing.查看答案

54. What does the author believe that theUruguay Round agreements on trade will achieve?
【答案】The author believes that it is likely to be a reduction of 36percent in the average levels of farm subsidies paid by the rich countries in1986-1990.查看答案

55. What do you think the most suitabletitle for this passage could be?
【答案】Environmental management查看答案

Please write acomposition of 400 words on the following topic:
Some people believe that visitors to other countries shouldfollow local customs and behavior. Others disagree and think that the hostcountry should welcome cultural differences. Discuss both these views and giveyour own opinion.
Marks will beawarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure tofollow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.
Follow the Local Customs?
When touristsvisit other countries or regions, one problem will appear. It is whether thetourists should follow the local customs and behaviors or not.
Some peoplebelieve that visitors to other countries should follow the local customs andbehaviors. Firstly, “do as the Romans do when in Rome”. In fact, one reason ofour trip is to experience the different culture of other countries. This needsus to follow and join in the local customs and we will get more joy. Forexample, if we step into the Western America, what we should do is riding thehorse and regarding ourselves as a cowboy, lying on the farm and enjoying thecountry music. Secondly, we should respect the local customs and behaviors; ifnot, we will be trapped into the troublesome. In India, if a tourist doesn’trespect the cattle, I think, he will experience a bad trip. So if we want toget a wonderful trip, we should follow the local customs and behaviors.
Others disagreeand think that the host country should welcome cultural differences. This isalso true and right. It is very difficult to get used to another country’scustoms and what is necessary is the cultural differences. So the host countryshould welcome cultural differences. For instance: If a Muslim comes intoChina, we can’t force him to eat pork. The other example: It will beuncomfortable and disgusted for some people from inland to accept the sea food.And some customs or behaviors are not suitable for tourists to follow. Forexample: When we go on a trip in a tribe of the Southern Africa, we may havethe opportunity to see their characteristic festivals. Sometimes, they needswallow a snake to celebrate the festivals. That’s very terrible and I thinkthat is dangerous for tourists to follow. So we should respect the tourists’customs and behaviors too. The host country can’t force the tourists.
In my opinion,the tourists should respect the local customs and behaviors. Similarly, thehost country should welcome cultural differences. The most important thing isto respect each other and achieve the balance and harmony. I have a friend; sheis now in Si Chuan University. She told me: Though I know Stinky tofu (Smellytofu) is very delicious, I still have no appetite to eat it. When I was facedwith the Si Chuan black smelly tofu, I nearly passed out. I know it is stilldifficult for her to follow the customs of Si Chuan people completely.Fortunately, she need not eat it imperatively. Finally, let me share you ajoke: If an English gentleman as a visitor comes into my home. He can enjoy thedelicious Chinese traditional food and he also can give thanks before thismeal. This is a joke, but interesting. It simplify tells us the biggesthappiness is harmony.


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