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第3章 信息技术类

Unit 31

In a lab in Princeton University’s ultra-sleek chemistry building, researchers toil in a modern-day hunt for an elusive power: alchemy.

Throughout the centuries, alchemists tried in vain to transform common metals like iron and lead into precious ones like gold or platinum. Today, Paul Chirik, a professor of chemistry at Princeton, has managed a new twist on the timeworn pursuit.

Dr. Chirik, 39, has learned how to make iron function like platinum, in chemical reactions that are crucial to manufacturing scores of basic materials. While he can’t, sadly, transmute a lump of iron ore into a pile of valuable jewelry, his version of alchemy is far more practical, and the implications are wide-ranging.

The process could herald a new era of flexible manufacturing technologies, while enabling companies to steer clear of scarce elements as prices rise or obtaining them becomes environmentally or geopolitically risky.

“No chemist would think lithium was in short supply,” Dr. Chirik said, “but what happens if you put a lithium battery in every car? This is why chemistry needs to be ahead of the curve. We need to have adaptable solutions.”

Despite the cost and relative scarcity of precious metals—iridium, platinum, rhodium—we rely on them to manufacture products from denim to beer, pharmaceuticals to fuel cells. The elements are used as catalysts, substances that kick off or enable chemical reactions.

Dr. Chirik’s work involves dissolved catalysts, which are mixed into the end product. The molecules of the catalyst dissipate during the reaction. For instance, a solution containing platinum is used to make silicone emulsifiers, compounds that in turn feed products like makeup, cookware and glue. Tiny amounts of the expensive metal are scattered in all these things; your jeans, for instance, contain unrecoverable particles of platinum.

注(1):本文选自The New York Times;

注(2):本文习题模仿对象:本文习题的第1、5题模仿2011年真题Text 1的第1、5题;第2题模仿2010年真题Text 2的第2题;第3、4题模仿2011年真题Text 2的第3、4题。

1. We can learn from the first two paragraphs that alchemy ______.

A) incurs suspicion

B) is a new pursuit

C) hasn’t been realized

D) arouses curiosity

2. Which of the following is NOT true?

A) In some chemical reactions, iron can function like platinum.

B) Dr. Chirik’s practical alchemy enables him transform iron ore into valuable jewelry.

C) Flexible manufacturing technologies can avoid the use of scarce elements as prices rise in the future.

D) Chemists would think lithium was sufficient.

3. The phrase “be ahead of the curve” (Line 2, Paragraph 5) most probably means ______.

A) making change in advance

B) before curving

C) forward

D) keeping changing

4. It can be inferred from the last two paragraphs that ______.

A) catalysts are mixed into the end product

B) the molecules of the catalyst decompose during the reaction

C) it would be the biggest deal so far

D) catalysts feature in wide-ranging function in chemical reactions as well as in the end products

5. From the text we can see that the writer seems ______.

A) positive

B) negative

C) uncertain

D) neutral




elusive /ɪˈluːsɪv/ adj. 难获得的;难懂的;易忘的

alchemy /ˈælkəmi/ n. 炼金术;魔力

alchemist /ˈælkəmɪst/ n. 炼金士

platinum /ˈplætɪnəm/ n. 铂

timeworn /ˈtaɪmwɔːn/ adj. 陈旧的,老朽的

herald /ˈherəld/ v. 预示

lithium /ˈlɪθiəm/ n. 锂

iridium /ɪˈrɪdɪəm/ n. 铱

rhodium /ˈrəʊdɪəm/ n. 铑

pharmaceutical /ˌfɑːməˈsjuːtɪkl/ n. 药品adj. 制药的

catalyst /ˈkætəlɪst/ n. 催化剂

dissipate /ˈdɪsɪpeɪt/ v. 消失;驱散;浪费

silicone /ˈsɪlɪkəun/ n. 硅树脂

emulsifier /ɪˈmʌlsɪfaɪ(r)/ n. 乳化剂


The process could herald a new era of flexible manufacturing technologies, while enabling companies to steer clear of scarce elements as prices rise or obtaining them becomes environmentally or geopolitically risky.

主体句式:The process could herald a era of flexible manufacturing technologies...




1. C 推断题。原文“alchemists tried in vain to transform common metals like...”中in vain这个词组表示“白费力气,徒劳”,虽然炼金师们尝试了各种方法,但炼金术还是没有实现,故C项正确。其余三项并没有在文章中体现。

2. B 细节题。文中对应原句“While he can’t, sadly, transmute a lump of iron ore into a pile of valuable jewelry, his version of alchemy is far more practical, and the implications are wide-ranging.”其中正确的逻辑关系是,虽然齐瑞克博士的炼金术更实用,影响更广泛,然而他并不能把铁矿石变成珠宝,B选项正好混淆了逻辑。A、C和D选项皆在文章中有直接或间接的体现。

3. A 语义题。由前后文语义和“We need to have adaptable solutions.”可以推断出,化学科学需要走在转变之前,以应对各种状况,也就是要提前做出改变,故选A。

4. D 推断题。最后两段讲述了催化剂不仅能促成化学反应,而且会被混合到最终产品中,由此可知D正确。A、B和C陈述的仅仅是一种现象,不能作为推断的结果。

5. D 情感态度题。本文是一篇科学研究类文章,旨在讲述科学技术,因此作者持中立态度。









Unit 32

Tennis hopeful Jamie Hunt, 16, felt he could not become a world-class junior player while attending a regular school. The international circuit has players on the road 50% of the time—and it’s hard to focus on your backhand when you’re worrying about being on time for homeroom. So last year Hunt, who hones his ground strokes at Elite TNT Tennis Academy in April Sound, Texas, enrolled for academics in the $9,750-a-year University of Miami Online High School(UMOHS), a virtual school that caters to athletes. “The online school gives me the flexibility I need,” says Hunt. “The workload is the same, but I can do it anywhere. It’s nicer to ask a question face-to-face with a teacher, but in some ways it prepares me better for college because I have to be more independent.” A year ago, Hunt’s world junior ranking was 886; now it’s 108.

Virtual high schools, which allow students to take classes via PC, have emerged as an increasingly popular education alternative, particularly for on-the-go athletes. UMOHS has more than 400 students enrolled, 65% of whom are athletes. Accredited by the 100-year-old Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, UMOHS offers honors and advanced-placement classes. All course material is online, along with assignments and due dates. For help, says principal Howard Liebman, “a student may e-mail, instant message or call the teacher.”

Dallas mom Lori Bannon turned to another online school, Laurel Springs in Ojai, Calif. Bannon, who has a medical degree from Harvard, didn’t want to compromise the education of her daughter Lindsay, 13, an élite gymnast who spends eight hours a day in the gym. “Regular school was not an option,” says Bannon, “but I wanted to make sure she could go back at grade level if she quit gymnastics.” Laurel Springs’ enrollment has increased 35% a year for the past four years, to 1,800 students. At least 25% are either athletes or child entertainers.

Educators are split on the merits of such schools. Paul Orehovec, an enrollment officer for the University of Miami, admits, “I was somewhat of a skeptic. But when I looked into their programs and accreditation, I was excited. UMOHS is the first online school to be granted membership in the National Honor Society.” Kevin Roy, Elite’s director of education, sees pitfalls and potential in virtual schools. “You will never have that wonderful teacher who inspires you for life,” says Roy. “But the virtual school offers endless possibilities. I don’t know where education’s imagination will take this.”


注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象:第1、2、3、5题分别模仿2004年真题Text 4第1、2题,Text 1第2题和Text 3第5题;第4题模仿2014年真题Text 2第4题。

1. What does Jamie Hunt get from the virtual school?

A) The ability to perfect his tennis skills.

B) The time to do his school work.

C) The flexibility to finish the workload anywhere.

D) The independence he needs to be a good tennis player.

2. We can learn from the text that virtual high schools ______.

A) make it possible for athletes to receive training without delaying their school work

B) have gained ground as a major education form

C) are cheaper than real schools

D) prepare students better for colleges

3. Which of the following is NOT a practice in a virtual school?

A) Visiting a homeroom on time.

B) E-mailing teachers for questions.

C) Getting course materials online.

D) Taking classes via a PC.

4. Lori Bannon turned to online school because ______.

A) virtual school has more athlete students

B) virtual school offers better education

C) her daughter is an elite gymnast

D) regular school cannot meet her daughter’s condition

5. To which of the following is the author likely to agree?

A) The education provided by virtual schools is yet to be recognized by authorities.

B) Educators are divided as to whether students should take virtual schools.

C) Despite the defects, virtual schools show great potentials.

D) Regular schools will be replaced by virtual schools sooner or later.


本文是一篇说明文,介绍了网上虚拟学校的发展状况。第一段以网坛小将Jamie Hunt的例子引出虚拟学校这个话题;第二段介绍了虚拟学校的特点以及迈阿密大学网上中学UMOHS;第三段介绍了另外一个到虚拟学校求学的例子;最后一段介绍了人们对虚拟学校的看法。


hopeful /ˈhəʊpfʊl/ n. 有希望成功的人

circuit /ˈsɜːkɪt/ n. 运动队(或运动场)联合会;联赛

backhand /ˈbækhænd/ n. (网球)反手击球,反手抽击

homeroom /ˈhəʊmruːm/ n. 年级教室

hone /həʊn/ vt. 磨炼;训练;使完美

ground stroke 【网】击触地球

virtual /ˈvɜːtjʊəl/ adj. 虚拟的

cater to 迎合

on-the-go /ˈɒnðəˈgəʊ/ adj. 忙碌的

accredit /əˈkredɪt/ vt. 承认资格;授权

advanced-placement 大学预科班

pitfall /ˈpɪtfɔːl/ n. 缺陷


So last year Hunt, who hones his ground strokes at Elite TNT Tennis Academy in April Sound, Texas, enrolled for academics in the $9,750-a-year University of Miami Online High School (UMOHS), a virtual school that caters to athletes.

主体句式:Hunt enrolled in the school.


句子译文:所以去年亨特注册成为专为运动员开办的迈阿密大学网上中学(UMOHS)的学生,每年学费为9750美元。目前他正在位于得克萨斯州艾波桑德(April Sound)的“TNT精英网球学院”苦练击触地球技术。


1. C 细节题。可以从第一段第六、七行Hunt自己的话“The online school gives me the flexibility I need...The workload is the same, but I can do it anywhere”得知答案。

2. A 推理题。根据第一段提到的虚拟学校的灵活性以及Hunt学习成绩的进步,以及第二段提到的它已经成为an increasingly popular education alternative, particularly for on-the-go athletes可以判断,这种学校可以让运动员既坚持训练又不至于耽误功课。

3. A 细节题。根据第一段第二、三行“it’s hard to focus on your backhand when you’re worrying about being on time for homeroom”可知学生按时到年级教室是传统学校的一种做法。第二段介绍虚拟学校的时候有这样的描述:“所有的课程材料和课堂作业以及完成日期等信息都登在网上。由此可排除B、C、D。

4. D 细节题。根据上下文,Bannon的女儿每天要训练8小时,她又想让女儿的功课跟得上,就无法考虑上普通学校了。可见普通学校无法满足她女儿的条件。

5. C 推理题。文章最后一段说一位教务处长既看到了虚拟学校的不足,也看到了它们的潜力。并引用他的话说:“虚拟学校却提供了无限可能性。”可见虚拟学校虽然有缺陷,但仍然有着巨大的潜力。


16岁的网坛小将杰米·亨特认为,他如果就读普通学校,就不可能成为世界级的青年运动员。参加国际巡回比赛的运动员50%的时间都在路上——当你担心自己不能准时出现在年级教室时,你就很难把注意力集中在反手击球上。所以去年亨特注册成为专为运动员开办的迈阿密大学网上中学(UMOHS)的学生,每年学费为9750美元。目前他正在位于得克萨斯州艾波桑德(April Sound)的“TNT精英网球学院”苦练击触地球技术。“这个网上学校使我可以根据需要灵活安排学习时间,”亨特说道。“学习任务不变,但我可以在任何地方学习。当面问老师问题当然好,但网上学校可以让我在某些方面更好地为上大学做准备,因为我必须更加独立。”一年前,亨特在国际青少年运动员排名中位列886位,现在已经升至108位。




Unit 33

Muffin Man has more than 2,000 songs on his hard drive, and he’s happy to share them. He’s a big fan of bands like Pearl Jam and the White Stripes, so there’s plenty of hard rock in his collection.

But chances are you’ll never get to it. The 21-year-old pizza cook, who asked to be identified by his online nickname, makes his songs available only through private file-sharing networks known as darknets. Unlike such public networks as Kazaa or Morpheus, which let you share songs with anyone, private networks operate more like underground nightclubs or secret societies. To gain access, you need to know the name of the group and a password. And the only way to get that information is from another member who invites you in. Some darknets even encrypt files and mask your identity within a group to keep eavesdroppers from finding out who you are and what you are sharing.

It’s a handy invention now that the recording industry has taken to suing kids who share music online. But darknets are not just for digital music files. Carving out a bit of privacy online has wide appeal; students, community groups and even political dissidents can use these hidden networks to share projects, papers and information. One part of the allure is anonymity; the other is exclusivity. Since participation is limited, file searches don’t turn up a lot of junk or pornography. Darknets offer the convenience of the Web without a lot of the bad stuff.

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