Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Weighing yourself regularly is a wonderful way to stay aware of any significant weight fluctuations. ______(1), when done too often, this habit can sometimes hurt more than it _____(2).
As for me, weighing myself every day caused me to shift my focus from being generally healthy and physically active to focusing ______(3)on the scale. That was bad to my overall fitness goals. I had gained weight in the form of muscle mass, but thinking only of ______(4)the number on the scale, I altered my training program. That convicted with how I needed to train to ______(5)my goals.
I also found that weighing myself daily did not provide an accurate ______(6)of the hard work and progress I was making in the gym. It takes about three weeks to a month to notice any significant changes in your weight ______(7)altering your training program. The most ______(8)changes will be observed in skill level, strength and inches lost
For these ______(9), I stopped weighing myself every day and switched to a bimonthly weighing schedule ______(10). Since weight loss is not my goal, it is less important for me to______(11)my weight each week. Weighing every other week allows me to observe and ______(12)any significant weight changes. That tells me whether I need to ______(13)my training program.
I use my bimonthly weigh-in ______(14)to get information about my nutrition as well. If my training intensity remains the same, but I'm constantly ______(15)and dropping weight, this is a ______(16)that I need to increase my daily caloric intake.
The ______(17)to stop weighing myself every day has done wonders for my overall health, fitness and well-being. I'm experiencing increased zeal for working out since I no longer carry the burden of a ______(18)morning weigh-in. I've also experienced greater success in achieving my specific fitness goals, ______(19)I'm training according to those goals, not the numbers on a scale.
Rather than ______(20)over the scale, turn your focus to how you look, feel how your clothes fit and your overall energy level.
【解析】此处考察逻辑关系。首段提出文章中心：定期称量自己是一种解任何显著的体重波动的好方法。空格所在句指出______如果太频繁,这种习惯有时会造成损害。前文 wonderful way(好方法)与后文hurt(损害)形成转折关系,故填入 however(然而)。另外, however也是考研完形填空中的高频词。其他选项：therefore(因此),otherwise(否则)和 besides(此外)此处不符合语境,故正确答案为However.
【解析】此处考察反义复现。空格所在句指出：this habit can sometimes hurt more than it _____(这种习惯的坏处要比_____多)，应该是help(有帮助，有好处)，与前文hurt(损害)形成反义复现。其他选项：Cares(关心)，warns(警告)，reduces(减少，致使)均不能与hurt形成呼应，故正确答案为helps。
【解析】此处考察同义复现+词义辨析。空格所在句指出：至于我，每天称自己的重量让我把注意力从保持健康和好动转移到_____注于体重秤。填入solely(仅仅)语义通顺。另外本句focusing solely on the scale中的solely(仅仅)与本段后文thinking only of _____the number on the scale的only形成了同义复现。故正确答案为solely。
【解析】此处考察短语辨析。空格所在句的句意：需要大约三周到一个月的时间来发现体重的显著变化，______改变了你的训练计划。空格处所填入的短语需要和前面句子构成因果的逻辑关系，只有due to(由于)符合要求; regardless of(不管，不顾)，aside from(除...以外)，along with(与...一起，连同)带入后，语义不通顺。故正确答案为due to。
【解析】此处考察固定搭配。for these reasons由于这些原因。空格所在句指出：由于这些原因(上文提到的原因)，我停止每天称体重。只有选项reasons(原因)符合要求;选项judgments(判断)，选methods(方法，方式)，选项claims(要求，索赔)带入后，语义不通顺。故正确答案为reasons。
【解析】此处考察词义辨析以及上下文语境分析。空格所在句的前半部分指出：由于上述原因，我停止每天称体重。后半句话句意：而转而改用两个月称一次体重。switched to转而....与选项instead对应。选项instead (代替，反而)符合语义要求;选项though(虽然，尽管)，选项again(又，再一次)，选项indeed(的确，实在)带入空格后，语义不通顺，均排除。故正确答案为instead
【解析】空格所在句提到：Since weight loss is not my goal(因为减重不是我的目的)，it is less important for me to _____my weight each week(对我来说，每周___我的体重不太重要)。空格处所填入的动词需要和后面的宾语my weight构成通顺的动宾语义搭配，除此之外，本文的主题是称重，因此需要观察、监测或跟踪体重的变化，因此只有track符合语义与主题要求。
【解析】空格所在句提到：Weighing every other week allows me to observe and ______any significant weight changes(每隔一周称次体重使我能够观察及_____任何明显的体重变化)，空格处所填入的动词需和后面的宾语weight changes构成通顺的动宾搭配;同时，该动词还和observe构成并列关系，并列的动词会存在动作先后发生的特点(先观察到体重变化，再来了解或解释体重变化的原因)，因此只有account for(解释，了解)更恰当。
【解析】空格所在处提到：That tells me whether I need to _____my training program(那告诉我，我是否需要_____我的训练项目)。空格处所填动词需要和后面的宾语training program 构成顺畅的动宾语义关系;除此之外，that指代上文中“观察并了解体重变化”，因此此处应该表明，观察并了解体重变化能让我知道是否需要调整训练项目。因此adjust符合要求。
【解析】空格处所在句提到：I use my bimonthly weigh-in _____ to get information about my nutrition as well(我根据两个月称重一次的___来获得关于我的营养方面的信息)。空格处所填名词需和bimonthly weigh-in构成顺畅的语义关系，空格处上文提到“两个月称重一次可以观察并了解任何明显的体重变化”，因此空格处应该表示“称重结果”，故results为正确答案。
【解析】空格处提到：if.......I am constantly _____ and dropping weight, this is a sign that I need to increase my daily caloric intake(如果。。。我持续___以及体重下降，那么这是一个标志表明我需要增加日常卡路里摄入)，根据条件状从和主句的条件与结果的逻辑关系，空格处填入“hungry(饥饿)”更符合语义要求。
【解析】空格后动词不定式结构“to stop weighing myself every day”作空格处名词的定语，“停止每天称体重这个______”,根据语义，此处填decision“决定”最合理。
【解析】根据选项特征看出本题考查句内逻辑关系，前半句话“I've also experienced greater success in achieving my specific fitness goals”(我也更成功地实现了健身目标)，后半句“I’m training according to those goals, mot the numbers on scale.”(我根据那些目标来训练，而不是体重数字。)此处应为因果关系，所以正确选项为because。此外，本句话中的“also”表明与前一句话之间的关系，前一句话中的since也表示因果关系。
【解析】根据选项特征，此空填入动词的现在分词，其逻辑主语为句子主语you，宾语为the scale，通过上文可知，作者对于“the scale”一直持否定态度，因此此空根据语义色彩排除dominating“统治”和triumphing“胜利”，而puzzling over 表示“仔细琢磨，冥思苦想”，与上下文语义不符。因此选obsessing“使困扰”
When Guilt Is Good
In a world that is growing more divided and atomized, it may be guilt-not empathy- that can bring people together.
APRIL 2018 ISSUE
A FEW YEARS AGO, researchers in Germany set out to plumb the moral consciences of small children. They invited a series of 2-and 3-year olds to play with a marble track in a lab.
Close to the track—inauspiciously close—was a block tower that one of the adult experimenters claimed to have painstakingly constructed. Just before turning her back, she asked them not to damage it
Needless to say, the game was rigged. After a few runs, a marble would knock over part of the tower, at which point the experimenter responded with what the resulting journal article described as a "mildly sad" tone. "Oh no," she would say, then ask what had happened.
In some versions of the experiment, the child seemed to be to blame; in others, an adult who was helping with the experiment toppled the tower. The kids' reactions revealed a lot about how social-emotional development progresses during these key years. While many of the 2-year-olds seemed sympathetic to the researcher's plight, the 3-year-olds went beyond sympathy. When they believed that they'd caused the accident, they were more likely than the 2-year-olds to express regret and try to fix the tower. In other words, the 3-year-olds behavior varied depending on whether they felt responsible.
Their actions, according to Amrisha Vaish, the University of Virginia psychology researcher who led the study, demonstrate the beginnings of real guilt and real conscience." Vaish is one of a number of scholars studying how, when, and why guilt emerges in children. Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child's growing grasp of social and moral norms. Children aren't born knowing how to say "I' m sorry"; rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends--and their own consciences. This is why researchers generally regard so called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing: A child who claims responsibility for knocking over a tower and tries to rebuild it is engaging in behavior that's not only reparative but also prosocial.
In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It evokes Freud's ideas and religious hang-ups. More important, guilt is deeply uncomfortable, it's the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. Who would inflict it upon a child? Yet this understanding is outdated. "There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve," Vaish says, adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren't binary- feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. Too much happiness (think mania) can be destructive.
And guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to atone for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.
Viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti, a psychology professor at the University of Toronto, suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy (and its close cousin empathy) may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. Some kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And vice versa: High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.
In a 2014 study, for example, Malti and a colleague looked at 244 children, ages 4, 8, and 12. Using caregiver assessments and the children's self-observations, they rated each child s overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions (like. guilt and sadness) after moral transgressions. Then the kids were handed stickers and chocolate coins, and given a chance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, how much they shared appeared to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. The guilt- prone ones shared more, even though they hadn't magically become more sympathetic to the other child s deprivation.
"That's good news," Malti says. "We can be prosocial because of our empathetic proclivity, or because we caused harm and we feel regret."
Malti describes guilt as a self- directed emotion, elicited when you act in a way that's out of keeping with your conscience. Sympathy and empathy are other-directed. A child who isn't inclined to feel bad for a classmate whose toy car she stole might nevertheless feel uncomfortable with the idea of herself as a thief-and return the toy. Guilt can include sympathy, Malti says, but it doesn't have to. She's agnostic about which of the two paths children take, so long as they treat one another well.
This is a provocative idea at a moment when parents and educators have come to almost fetishize empathy-when a child's ability to put herself in another's shoes seems like the apex of goodness. Parents encourage children to consider how their peers feel when they don't share their toys, Preschool teachers instruct students to consider one another “friends“, implying that good behavior is predicated on affection. Elementary schools base anti-bullying curricula around altruistic concepts like love and kindness.
When it comes to helping kids manage relationships and tamp down aggression, “schools” and programs have almost exclusively focused on empathy promotion," Malti says. "I think it's incredibly important to nurture empathy but I think it's equally important to promote guilt.
IF you still find the idea of guilting your child unpalatable, keep in mind that we're talking about a very specific kind of guilt. This is not telling your child that her disobedience proves she's unworthy, or describing how painful it was to give birth to her. This is not pressuring your grown son or daughter to hurry up and have babies before you die. In short, this is not your grandmother's guilt-trip.
You don't want a child to feel bad about who she is (that's called shaming) or responsible for things outside her control (which can give rise to maladaptive or neurotic guilt; see the child who feels guilty for her parents' divorce). Malti points out that a child's age and disposition are also important considerations; some may be temperamentally guilt prone and require a lighter touch. The point is to encourage both goodness and resilience. We all make mistakes, and ideally we use them to propel ourselves toward better behavior.
本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)次
Section I Use of English
- Part A Directions: Read the following four texts, Answer the questions each text by choosing A B. C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET (40 points) Text 1 21. A 22.D 23. B 24. C 25. B Text 2 26. D 27. A 28. A 29. C 30. B Text 3 31. C 32. D 33. B 34. A 35. C ...英语阅读 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- 英语阅读 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- 英语阅读 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- Part A Text 1 21. A enhance banker&s sense of responsibility 22. D short-termism in economic activities 23. B adverse 24. C the approaches to promoting long-termism 25. B Patience as a Corporate Virtue Text 2 26. D The influence of consumer culture 27. A To help f ...英语阅读 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- Text 1 21、【答案】A enhance banks sense of responsibility 【解析】根据题干可知这是一道典型的细节题。根据题干关键词paragraph 1和one motive in imposing the new rule回文定位在第一段第三句The main purpose of this clawback rule is to hold b ...英语阅读 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- 英语完形 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- 英语完形 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- Section I Use of English 1. C few 2. C run 3. B If 4. D literally 5. A back 6. B off 7. D unfamiliar 8. C way 9. A so 10. D eventually 11. A surprised 12. B option 13. D For example 14. C spot 15. B through 16. D breaks 17. A artificial 18. A ...英语完形 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- Section I Use of English Directions： Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) Today we live in a world where GPS systems, digital maps, and other navigation apps are available on our smart phone__ ...英语完形 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- Section I Use of English 1、【答案】C. Few 【试题考点】词义辨析和上下文语境 【解析】此题词义辨析和上下文语境。首句为主题句：今天，我们生活在一个GPS系统，数字地图和其他导航应用程序都在我们的智能手机上唾手可得的世界。空格所在句指出：我们中_____在没有电话，个人GPS或其他导航工具的情况下直接走进 ...英语完形 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET (10 points) 1. C 2.C 3.B 4. D 5. A 6. B 7.D 8. C 9.A 10.D 11. A 12. B 13.D 14. C 15. B 16. D 17. A 18. D 19.B 20. C ...英语完形 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWERSHEET. (10 points) Today we live in a world where GPS systems, digital maps, and other navigation apps are available on our smart phones._____ ...英语完形 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- ...英语翻译 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- 46. There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay pres, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms. 【解析】 1. 本句主干为There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journal ...英语翻译 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)
- 英语翻译 本站小编 免费考研网 2018-12-28 (0)