2020考研英语语法新思维 第4集

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摘要 : 真题再现:语法攻克考研英译汉1996年第75题 50 New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance. 妙语点睛 这里as引导方式状语从句,as they have相当于as they have arisen。...

真题再现:语法攻克考研“英译汉”——1996年第75题

50 New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.

妙语点睛 这里as引导方式状语从句,as they have相当于as they have arisen。

精品译文 同过去一样,将来必然会出现新的思维方式和新的思维对象,并给完美以新的标准。

2. as引导的方式状语从句可倒装

as引导方式状语从句,可以采用倒装结构,该结构一般为:as+助动词+主语。这里as往往是代替被省略的谓语部分。

51 Some Asian nations and regions reiterated their opposition to a war, as did many of their citizens who worry Bush has already given up on hopes for a peaceful resolution to the crisis.

妙语点睛 这里as从句的主语是many of their citizens,被后置,故是一个倒装结构,相当于as many of their citizens... reiterated opposition to a war。

精品译文 一些亚洲国家和地区重申,他们反对战争,他们的许多公民也持同样立场,因为他们担心小布什已经放弃了和平解决这一危机的希望。

52 To determine the consequences of sleep deficit, researchers have put subjects through a set of psychological and performance tests requiring them, for instance, to add columns of numbers or recall a passage read to them only minutes earlier. “We’ve found that if you’re in sleep deficit, performance suffers,” says Dr. David. “Short-term memory is weakened, as are abilities to make decision and to concentrate.”

妙语点睛 这里as从句的主语是abilities,被后置,故是一个倒装结构,相当于as abilities to make decision and to concentrate are weakened。

精品译文 为了测定睡眠不足带来的后果,研究人员让受试者接受了一系列心理测试以及能力测试,包括做数字加法或回忆刚刚听过的文章。“我们发现如果睡眠不足,能力测试就会受到影响,”大卫医生说,“短期记忆能力会下降,决策力和集中力同样也会减弱。”

3. as特殊用法:用于否定结构

我们都知道,as一般翻译成“正如……”。但是,as还有一种比较特殊的用法,就是用于否定结构中,此时,as就不能译成“正如……”。as用于否定结构,有两种句式,先来看第一种:as前面的句子是否定,as句子本身是肯定。

53 As a linguist, he acknowledges that all varieties of human language, including non-standard ones like Black English, can be powerfully expressive—there exists no language or dialect in the world that cannot convey complex ideas. He is not arguing, as many do, that we can no longer think straight because we do not talk proper. (2005年阅读第四篇)

妙语点睛 这里主句用了否定is not arguing,而as从句用了肯定as many do,此时as无法译成“正如……”,相反,要译成“不像……”。

精品译文 作为一名语言学家,他承认所有的人类语言,包括像黑人英语这样的非标准语言,都可以明确地表情达意——世界上没有不能表达复杂意思的语言或方言。他并没有像许多人那样,认为因为我们说不好话,就不会正确地思考了。

54 Pure iron cannot be hardened by heating and cooling, as ______, because iron lacks the necessary carbon. (1999-10-13 TOEFL)

A. steel it can

B. can steel

C. with steel can

D. so can steel

正确答案 B

妙语点睛 这里主句用了否定词cannot,而as从句用了肯定词can。此时as无法译成“正如……”,相反,要译成“不像……”。另外,从句主语显然是steel,被后置,故是我们上面第2点中刚讨论过的倒装结构。

精品译文 纯铁无法通过反复加热和冷却来硬化,这点不像钢,因为铁缺乏必要的碳元素。

55 Far from advocating a withdrawal from American culture, as did some of his contemporaries, he recommended a cultural pluralism through which artists could enrich the culture of America.

妙语点睛 首先,这里虽然没有否定词not,但是far from表示否定,而从句用了肯定did。其次,这里从句也是一个倒装结构,主语是some of his contemporaries。

精品译文 他并没有像同时代的一些人那样提倡与美国文化完全分离,而是主张一种文化多元主义,由此艺术家们可以丰富美国文化。

还有另外一种结构:as前面句子是肯定,as句子本身否定。

56 A sob rolled up in me. I flung up my hands and cried as I never had in my life.

妙语点睛 主句用了肯定cried,而as从句用了否定never had。此时as无法译成“正如……”,而要转译为“但,然而”。

精品译文 此时我非常想哭,于是我就用双手捂住脸,大声哭起来,而我以前从未这样哭过。

更多例句:

57 She described the scene as no other people described it.

精品译文 她这样描写这个场景,而没有其他人会这样描写。

58 He could love the child as he did not love Charles.

精品译文 他可以爱上这个孩子,然而他却不爱查尔斯。

59 John had taken to that young woman as he did to few people.

精品译文 约翰深爱着这个年轻女子,而他很少这样爱一个人。

5.4.4 as引导让步状语从句

关于as引导让步状语从句,我们在P91页4.8.5和P92页4.8.6小节已经讨论过,这里仅举例简单回顾一下。

60 There are also desert insects which survive as inactive larvae. In addition, difficult as it is to believe, there are desert fish which can survive through years of drought in the form of inactive eggs.

妙语点睛 这里是“形容词+as+主谓”,表示让步,详见P91页4.8.5小节。

精品译文 还有一些沙漠昆虫以不活动的幼虫形态来存活。此外,尽管难以置信,但确有一种沙漠鱼能够以不活动的卵的形式来抵挡干旱,存活好几年。

61 In the 1950s, the pioneers of artificial intelligence(AI) predicted that, by the end of this century, computers would be conversing with us at work and robots would be performing out housework. But as useful as computers are, they’re nowhere close to achieving anything remotely resembling these early aspirations for humanlike behavior. Never mind something as complex as conversation: the most powerful computers struggle to reliably recognize the shape of an object, the most elementary of tasks for a ten-month-old kid.

妙语点睛 这里as useful as computers are从句是“as+形容词+as+主谓”结构,表示让步,详见P92页4.8.6小节。另外,这里something as complex as conversation是as...as引导的一个形容词短语,用作后置定语,修饰something。

精品译文 在20世纪50年代,人工智能的先驱们预言,在20世纪末,计算机将可以与我们人类进行工作上的交流,机器人可以替我们做家务。尽管计算机很有用,但它们离那些早期人们所设想的可以从事类似于人类活动的计算机还很遥远,更不用说像语言交流这么复杂的活动了。功能最强大的计算机想要辨别一个物体的形状都非常困难,而这对一个10个月大的婴儿来说,却是轻而易举的。

5.4.5 as引导比较状语从句:as much as结构

as much as结构看似简单,其实不然。我们先来看一个读者的提问:

“The ‘failed’ experiments are as much a part of the process as the experiment that ultimately ‘works’. 请问as...as中放的除了形容词外就是副词,那么本句中的as much a part of the process as the experiment that ultimately‘works’如何解释?”

要回答这个问题,我们首先得弄清楚这里的as much...as结构。很多读者看到as much as时,很可能将其翻译为“和……一样多”,其实不然。英语里as much as往往是表示两个事物之间程度的比较,表示“在同等程度上”,在翻译时要灵活处理。请看例句:

62 Small as it is, the ant is as much a creature as are all other animals on the earth.

妙语点睛 这里as much...as...表示的是“在同等程度上”,翻译时可以处理成“和……一样”。另外,这里as are all other animals on the earth是一个倒装结构,主语是all other animals on the earth。

精品译文 尽管蚂蚁很小,但是它同地球上任何其他动物一样,都是一种生物。

63 The atmosphere is as much a part of the earth as are its soils and the water of its lakes, rivers and oceans.

妙语点睛 这里as much...as...表示的是“在同等程度上”,翻译时可以处理成“如同……一样”。另外,同上一句一样,这里as are its soils and the water of its lakes, rivers and oceans是一个倒装结构,主语是复数名词短语its soils and the water of its lakes, rivers and oceans,所以谓语动词用are。

精品译文 地球周围的大气层,就如同地球上的泥土及湖泊、河流、海洋中的水一样,都是地球的组成部分。

现在我们再来看那位读者问到的句子:

64 The “failed” experiments are as much a part of the process as the experiment that ultimately “works”.

妙语点睛 首先,这个句子和上面第(61)的句子结构非常类似,都有as much a part...as这样结构。这里as much...as同样是表示程度的。此句中as much a part as的结构为“as+形容词+a(n)+可数名词单数+as”,请看第四章“状语从句”P94页4.9.1小节第2点内容。

精品译文 失败了的实验,与那些最终成功了的实验一样,都是整个实验过程的组成部分(同样重要)。

下面再来看有关as much as结构的考研真题。

真题再现:语法攻克考研“英译汉”——2005年第46题

65 Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed—and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent events in Europe.

妙语点睛 首先,因为有否定词never,所以我们可以用so来代替as,于是本句出现了so much...as的结构。这里比较的对象是时间,一个是before(以前),一个是in the recent events in Europe(在欧洲近来发生的事件中)。本句要说明television在这两个不同时间所起的作用大小不同。具体来说,强调的是television在欧洲近来发生的事件中所体现出的connect different peoples and nations(连接不同民族和国家)方面的作用,是以往任何时候都没有的。因此,我们可以转译为“作用之大,前所未有”。

精品译文 电视是引发和传递这些感受的手段之一——在欧洲近来发生的事件中,它把不同的民族和国家连到一起,发挥了前所未有的巨大作用。

真题再现:1994年语法

66 Scientists generally agree that the Earth’s climate will warm up over the next 50 to 100 years ______ it has warmed in the 20,000 years since the Ice Age.

A. as long as

B. as much as

C. as soon as

D. as well as

正确答案 B

妙语点睛 这里的as much as同样表示程度,说明地球气候变暖的程度在两个不同长度的时期内是一样的。

精品译文 科学家们一致认为,地球气候在未来50至100年内的变暖幅度将与它自冰河时代以来两万年间的变化幅度一样。

67 The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes.(2000年改错)

妙语点睛 The ideal listener enjoys it as much as the composer does at the moment he composes.这里does代替enjoys,表示对音乐的“欣赏”。as much as同样表示“同等程度上”。

精品译文 一个真正懂音乐的听众,应该是在听音乐时既可置身于音乐之中,又可游离于音乐之外,他对音乐的欣赏程度,几乎等同于作曲家本人在创作该曲子时对曲子的欣赏程度。

5.4.6 as引导比较状语从句:not so much...as...结构

在考研英语中,这个结构曾多次出现,详细内容可参加P105页4.9.7小节。我们这里仅举几例进行说明。

真题再现:语法攻克考研“英译汉”——1994年第71题

68 Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools.

精品译文 他们说,科学的发展与其说源于天才伟人的真知灼见,不如说源于像改进了的技术和工具这些更为普通的东西。

真题再现:2000年语法

69 It wasn’t so much that I disliked her ______ that I just wasn’t interested in the whole business.

A. rather

B. so

C. than

D. as

正确答案 D

精品译文 并不是因为我不喜欢她,而是因为我对整件事情根本就不感兴趣。

真题再现:1992年改错

70



正确答案 B,改为as。

精品译文 导致他比赛失利的真正原因,不是由于他遭受过许多打击,而是因为他缺乏斗志。

真题再现:1997年语法

71 The chief reason for the population growth isn’t so much a rise in birth rates _____ a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care.

A. and

B. as

C. but

D. or

正确答案 B

精品译文 导致人口快速增长的主要原因并不是出生率的增长,而是医疗保健水平的提高使死亡率下降了。

72 The oceans do not so much divide the world as unite it.

精品译文 海洋,与其说是分隔了大陆,倒不如说是联系了整个大陆。





5.5 有关as的结构

我们简单总结一下常见的as固定搭配。

as well:也

73 Yet the result may be worse qualifications, because they get less individual attention, as well as less confidence in speaking publicly. (2004年阅读第二篇)

74 These days the Net, which has already re-made pastimes as buying books and sending mail, is reshaping Donovan’s vocation as well.(2003年阅读第一篇)

75 A national council reports these findings: Though unemployed longer when seeking work, older women job-hunt harder, hold a job longer with less absenteeism, perform as well or better, are more reliable, and are more willing to learn than men or younger women.

as a whole:作为一个整体

76 The railroad industry as a whole, despite its brightening fortunes, still does not earn enough to cover the cost of the capital it must invest to keep up with its surging traffic. (2003年阅读第三篇)

77 Besides, the ability to read music notation has a far-reaching effect on musicians and, when it becomes wide-spread, on the music-culture as a whole.

as yet:迄今,到目前为止

78 However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question. (2005年阅读第一篇)

精品译文 不过,这种公平感是在卷尾猴和人类身上各自独立演化而成的,还是来自于3,500万年前他们共同的祖先,依旧是一个未解之谜。

79 This, for those as yet unaware of such a disadvantage, refers to discrimination against those whose surnames begin with a letter in the lower half of the alphabet. (2004年阅读第二篇)

请做下列综合练习,注意判断各句中as的意义和用法。

80 We must apologize for the delay in delivering these cabinets. As I said in my letter of 24 February, this is as a result of problems at our supplier’s factory. As these problems are completely beyond our control, I should like to point out that we are not able to refund your payment. I enclose a copy of our Terms of Sale for your reference.

81 It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. (2000年阅读第一篇)

82 By the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them as just “mental noise” the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. ...Evidence from brain imaging supports this view. The brain is as active during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep—when most vivid dreams occur—as it is when fully awake, says Dr, Eric Nofzinger at the University of Pittsburgh. (2005年阅读第三篇)

83 In contrast, our image of the astronomical universe, or even of earth’s geological history, can easily be subject to revolutionary changes as new data comes in and new theories are worked out. If we define the “security” of our image of various parts of the total system as the probability of their suffering significant changes, then we would reverse the order of hardness and see the social sciences as the most secure, the physical science as the least secure, and again the biological sciences as somewhere in between. Our image of the astronomical universe is the least secure of all simply because we observe such a fantastically limited sample of it and its record-keeping is trivial as compared with the rich records of the social systems, or even the limited records of biological systems. Records of the astronomical universe, despite the fact that we see distant things as they were long ago, are limited in the extreme.

84 Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such behavior is regarded as “all too human”, with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it all too monkey, as well. ...However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question. ...Animals usually show their feelings openly as humans do. (2005年阅读第一篇)

参考答案

80 We must apologize for the delay in delivering these cabinets. As (as引导定语从句) I said in my letter of 24 February, this is as (固定搭配)a result of problems at our supplier’s factory. As (引导原因状语从句) these problems are completely beyond our control, I should like to point out that we are not able to refund your payment. I enclose a copy of our Terms of Sale for your reference.

81 It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as (as引导时间状语从句) other countries grew richer. Just as (as用作副词) inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. (2000年阅读第一篇)

82 By the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them as (think of...as...搭配) just “mental noise” the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. ...Evidence from brain imaging supports this view. The brain is as active during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep—when most vivid dreams occur—as (as...as...比较状语从句) it is when fully awake, says Dr, Eric Nofzinger at the University of Pittsburgh. (2005年阅读第三篇)

83 In contrast, our image of the astronomical universe, or even of earth’s geological history, can easily be subject to revolutionary changes as (as引导时间状语从句) new data comes in and new theories are worked out. If we define the “security” of our image of various parts of the total system as (define...as...搭配) the probability of their suffering significant changes, then we would reverse the order of hardness and see the social sciences as (see...as...搭配) the most secure, the physical science as (see...as...搭配) the least secure, and again the biological sciences as (see...as...搭配)somewhere in between. Our image of the astronomical universe is the least secure of all simply because we observe such a fantastically limited sample of it and its record-keeping is trivial as compared with(as compared with搭配) the rich records of the social systems, or even the limited records of biological systems. Records of the astronomical universe, despite the fact that we see distant things as (as引导定语从句) they were long ago, are limited in the extreme.

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