中国人民大学2010-2017考博英语真题及答案

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历年真题
2017年中国人民大学博士研究生入学考试英语试题
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (40 %)
Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D.You should decide on the best choice and then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET.
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.
Sometimes, over a span of many Years, a business will continue to grow, generating ever-increasing amounts of cash, repurchasing stock, paying increased dividends, reducing debt, opening new stores, expanding production facilities, moving into new markets, etc., while at the same tune its stock price remains stagnant (or even falls).
When this happens, the average and professional investors alike tend to overlook the company because they become familiar with the trading range.
Take, for example, Wal-Mart. Over the past five years, the retailing behemoth has grown sales by over 80%, profits by over 100%, and yet the stock price has fallen as much as 30% during that timeframe. Clearly, the valuation picture has changed. An investor that read the annual report back in 2000 or 2001 might have passed on the security, deeming it too expensive based on a metric such as the price to earnings ratio. Today, however, the equation is completely different--despite the stock price, WalMart is, in essence, trading at half its former price because each share is backed by a larger dividend, twice the earnings power, more stores, and a bigger infrastructure. Home Depot is in much the same boat, largely because some Wall Street analysts question how fast two of the world's largest companies can continue to grow before their sheer size slows them down to the rate of the general economy.
Coca-Cola is another excellent example of this phenomenon. Ten years ago, in 1996, the stock traded between a range of $ 36.10 and $ 54.30 per share. At the time, it had reported earnings per share of $1.40 and paid a cash dividend of $ 0.50 per share. Corporate per share book value was $ 2.48.Last year, the stock traded within a range of $ 40.30 and $ 45.30 per share; squarely in the middle of the same area it had been nearly a decade prior! Yet, despite the stagnant stock price, the 2006 estimates Value Line Investment Survey estimates for earnings per share stand
around $ 2.16 (a rise of 54%), the cash dividend has more than doubled to $1.20, book value is expected to have grown to $ 7.40 per share (a gain of nearly 300%), and the total number of shares outstanding(未偿付的,未完成的) has actually decreased from 2.481 billion to an estimated 2.355 billion due to the company's share repurchase program.
16.This passage is probably a part of______.
A.Find Hidden Value in the Market B.Become Richer

C.Get Good Bargains D.Identify Good Companies


17.The italicized word “stagnant”(line 4, Para. 1)can be best paraphrased as______.
A.prominent B.terrible C.unchanged D.progressing
18.Wal-Mart is now trading at a much lower price because
A.it has stored a large quantity of goods

B.it has become financially more powerful

C.it has been eager to collect money to prevent bankruptcy

D.it is a good way to compete with other retailing companies


19.All the following are shared by Wal-Mart and Coco-Cola EXCEPT______.
A.the cash dividend has increased

B.the earning power has become stronger

C.both businesses have continued to grow

D.the stock price has greatly decreased


20.According to the author, one had better______.
A.buy more shares when the stock price falls down

B.sell out the shares when the stock price falls down

C.do some research on the value. of a business when its stock price falls down

D.invest in the business when its stock price fails down Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Today's college students are more narcissistic(自恋的) and self-centered than their


predecessors, according to a comprehensive new study by five psychologists who worry that the trend could be harmful to personal relationships and American society.
“We need to stop endlessly repeating 'You're special' and having children repeat that back,”said the study's lead author, Professor Jean Twenge of San Diego State University. “Kids are self-centered enough already. ”“Unfortunately, narcissism can also have very negative consequences for society, including the breakdown of close relationships with others,” he said. The study asserts that narcissists “are more likely to have romantic relationships that are short-lived, at risk for infidelity, lack emotional warmth, and to exhibit game-playing, dishonesty, and over-controlling and violent behaviors”. Twenge, the author of “Generation Me: Why Today's Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled--and More Miserable Than Ever Before”, said narcissists tend to lack empathy, react aggressively to criticism and favor self-promotion over helping others.
Some analysts have commended today's young people for increased commitment to volunteer work. But Twenge viewed even this phenomenon skeptically, noting that many high schools require community service and many youths feel pressure to list such endeavors on college applications.
Campbell said the narcissism upsurge seemed so pronounced(非常明显的) that he was unsure if there were obvious remedies.“Permissiveness seems to be a component,” he said.“A potential antidote would be more authoritative parenting. Less indulgence might be called for.”
Yet students, while acknowledging some legitimacy to such findings, don't necessarily accept negative generalizations about their generation.
Hanady Kader, a University of Washington senior, said she worked unpaid last summer helping resettle refugees and considers many of her peers to be civic-minded. But she is dismayed(气馁;心,) by the competitiveness of some students who seem prematurely focused on career status.“We're encouraged a lot to be individuals and go out there and do what you want, and nobody should stand in your way,” Kader said.“I can see goals and ambitions getting in the way of other things like relationships.”
Kari Dalane, a University of Vermont sophomore, says most of her contemporaries are politically active and not overly self-centered.“People are worried about themselves--but in the sense of where are they're going to find a place in the world,” she said.“People want to look their best, have a good time, but it doesn't mean they're not concerned about the rest of the world.”
Besides, some of the responses on the narcissism test might not be worrisome, Dalane said.“It would bemore depressingif peopleanswered,' No, I'm not special.' ”21.According to the passage, a narcissistic person may
21.According to the passage, a narcissistic person may______.
A.hate criticism B.be dishonest to his/her partner

C.be unwilling to help others D.All the above.


22.The italicized word “commended”(line 1, Para. 3)means______.
A.praised B.criticized C.recommended D.disfavored
23.Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
A.Narcissism may result in bad consequences.

B.College students are active to participate in volunteer work.

C.Some people doubt whether there are remedies to counter the narcissism upsurge.

D.Some college students are overly engaged in self-promotion.


24.It is implied that______.
A.both the researchers and college students are worried about the trend of narcissism

B.the researchers and college students disagree on the findings of the study

C.the researchers and college students disagree on some of the findings of the study

D.college students are pessimistic about their future


25.It is proper to be when you hear someone say “I'm special”.
A.objective B.pessimistic C.optimistic D.worried
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

The House is expected to pass a piece of legislation Thursday that seeks to significantly rebalance the playing field for unions and employers and could possibly reverse decades of declining membership among private industries.
The Employee Free Choice Act would allow a union to be recognized after collecting a majority of vote cards, instead of waiting for the National Labor Relations Board to oversee a secret ballot election, which can occur more than 50 days after the card vote is completed.
Representatives of business on Capitol Hill oppose the bill. The National Association of Manufacturers, The National Federation of Independent Business, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce and other business groups oppose the shift away from secret ballots saying the change could threaten the privacy of the workers.“This isn't about preventing increased unionization, it's about protecting rights”, said the National Association of Manufacturer's Jason Straczewski, of his organization's opposition to bill. Straczewski says eliminating the secret-ballot step would open up employees to coercion(旨迫,胁迫) from unions.
Samuel of the AFL-CIO contends the real coercion comes from employers.“Workers talking to workers are equals while managers talking to workers aren't,” Samuel said. He cites the 31, 358 cases of illegal employer discrimination acted on by the National Labor Relations Board in 2005.


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